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INTRODUCTION 



TO 



ENGLISH, FRENCH AND GERMAN 

PHONETICS 



WITH 



1Rea£>tna Wessons ant) Bserctses 



BY 



LAUKA SOAMES 



NEW EDITION, REVISED AND EDITED 

BY 

WILHELM VIETOR, Ph.D., M.A. f 

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH PHILOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MARBURG 




SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO., Lim. 
NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 

1899 

BOSTON COLLEGE LIBRARY 
CHESTNUT HILL, MASS. 



First Edition, 1891 ; Second Edition (reset), 1S99. 



336 



ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



PKEFACE TO THE FIKST EDITION. 

Miss Soames's book will, I believe, supply a want much 
felt by teachers of English and foreign languages. There 
are learned works on comparative phonology, but I know 
of none which are sufficiently clear and simple to put into 
the hands of the average learner. 

The main purpose of the book is to give shortly and 
clearly an idea of the mode of formation of the articulate 
sounds of the three modern languages most studied in our 
schools. When the teaching is systematised, we may 
hope both that English will be pronounced with a purer 
accent, and that a good pronunciation of foreign tongues 
will be acquired in a comparatively short time. 

The task has almost necessarily involved an expose of 
the extraordinary anomalies of English spelling. As an 
educator, I am earnestly desirous for reform, and I trust 
that this book may shorten the time of waiting. Our 
spelling is one of the greatest hindrances to the intelligent 
study of phonology, without which that of philology is 
almost impossible to the young, since the same sounds are 
ever masquerading in a new dress. 

The phonetic alphabet made use of is so simple that 
any one can read it after half an hour's study, and the 
author has judiciously chosen well-known pieces to help 
the inexperienced in acquiring facility. 

DOKOTHEA BEALE, 

Principal of the Cheltenham Ladies' College. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/introductiontoenOOsoam 



EDITOE'S PEEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

Complying with the desire of the late Miss Soames's 
literary trustees I have revised the present edition of her 
Introduction to the Study of Phonetics and seen it through 
the press. Miss Soames has left an annotated copy 
which has been at my disposal. As, however, most of 
this new matter had meanwhile been utilised, in accord- 
ance with the late author's directions, for her newer 
work, The Teacher s Manual, edited by me in 1897, I have 
confined my task to introducing Miss Soames's revised 
phonetic alphabet (whence the rather different aspect of 
the reading book, especially the specimens of German), 
breaking the text into numbered sections, and adding a 
few editorial notes. 

WILHELM VIETOE. 



Marburg, Germany, 
July, 1899. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I. 
INTBODUCTION TO PHONETICS. 

Preface by Miss Beale 
Editor's Preface 
Alphabets . 
Tables 
Diagrams . 

Introduction, §§ 1-11 

I. The Vocal Organ9 Described, §§ 12-17 

II. English Sounds Illustrated, §§ 18-59 
Consonants, §§ 19-24 
Long Vowels, §§ 25-32 
Short Vowels, §§ 33-40 
Diphthongs, §§ 41-44 
The Letter r, §§ 45-59 

III. English Analysis, §§ 60-105. 

Consonants. Introductory, §§ 60-62 

Stops, §§ 63, 64 

Liquids, §§ 65-69 

Continuants, §§ 70-77 

Composite Consonants, § 78 

Syllabic Consonants, § 79 
Vowels. Introductory, §§ 80-82 

Five Principal Vowels, a, ey, i, ow, u, §§ 83 

Remaining Long Vowels, e, 6, oe, §§ 88, 89 
Short Vowels. Introductory, §§ 90, 91 

Short Front Vowels, ae, e, i, § 92 . 

Short Back-round Vowels, o, u, ce, §§ 93, 94 

Long and Short Vowels Compared, § 95 . 

Narrow and Wide Vowels, § 96 



87 



PAGE 

iii 

v 

xiv 

xviii 

xxvi 



10 



14 
14 
19 
23 
26 
27 

34 
34 
35 
37 
39 
43 
43 
44 
45 
48 
50 
51 
52 
52 
53 



vin 



Contents. 



Unaccented Vowels. Introductory, §§ 97, 98 
The Obscure Vowel a, §§ 99, 100 . 
Unaccented i and i', § 101 

Short o', § 102 

e' and u', § 103 .... 

Diphthongs, ai, au, oi, yu, §§ 104, 105 . 

IV. English Synthesis, §§ 106-159 . 

r Combined with Vowels, §§ 106-114 
Doubled Sounds, § 115 . 
Consonants Combined, § 116 
Inflections, §§ 117-121 . 
Accent, §§ 122-129 . 
Quantity, §§ 130, 131 
Syllable Division, §§ 132-140 
Intonation, §§ 141-143 . 



PAGE 
54 

56 
57 
57 

58 

58 

61 
62 

68 
69 
70 
73 
78 
79 
82 



Variable Woeds. Usages of different speakers, §§ 144-149 84 

Weak Words, § 150 86 

Unaccented SyUables, §§ 151-155 .... 88 

A Syllable More or Less, §§ 156, 157 . . 90 

Spelling of Variable Words, §§ 158, 159 . . . 92 

V. Loan Words used in English, §§ 160-163 ... 95 

Special Symbols Required, § 161 .... 95 

The Most Necessary Foreign Sounds, § 162 . . 97 

List of Loan Words, § 163 98 

VI. Hints for Teachers, §§ 164-181 Ill 

Method Recommended, §§ 164-176 . . . .111 

Common Mistakes, §§ 177-179 122 

Key to the Spelling Lessons, § 180 . . . . 126 

Key to the Exercises, § 181 128 

VII. French Analysis, §§ 182-217 131 

Consonants, §§ 183-201 131 

Stops, § 184 132 

Liquids, §§ 185-194 132 

Continuants, §§ 195-201 136 



Contents. 



IX 



PAGE 

138 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
Unaccented Vowels in le, maison, comment, §§ 216, 217 143 



Vowels, §§ 202-217 . : 

Open Vowels in pdte,patte, §§203, 204 . 

Front Vowels in pris, m, fini, §§ 205-208 
Back-round Vowels in homme, drole, tout, §§ 209-212 
Front-round Vowels in peur, peu, pu, §§ 213, 214 . 
Nasal Vowels in pan, pin, pont, tin, § 215 



VIII. French Synthesis, §§ 218-234 . 










145 


Accent, §§ 218-221 . 










145 


Quantity, §§ 222-225 










147 


Intonation, § 226 . 










149 


Syllables, §§ 227-229 










150 


Liaison, §§ 230, 231 . 










151 


Elision, § 232 . 










152 


How Stops are Combined, § 233 








153 


Variations of Words ending in Voiceless m, 1, or r, 




§ 234 


153 


IX. German Analysis, §§ 235-261 


. 155 


Standard German, § 236 


. 155 


The Consonants. Consonants Illustrated, § 237 . 


. 156 


Six New Consonants, §§ 238-244 . 


. 158 


Familiar Consonants, §§ 245-2 


47 








. 160 



The Vowels. Vowels Illustrated, § 248 . . . 162 

German Vowels Described, § 249 .... 163 

Long and Short Vowels, § 250 163 

Open Vowels in lahm, Lamm, § 251 . . . 164 
Front Vowels in mahen, Manner, geh, ihn, Sinn, 

§§252,253 165 

Back-round Vowels in Sohn, Sonne, Kuh, dumm, 

§§254,255 165 

Front-round Vowels in Sohne, konnen, kilhn, diinn, 

§§256,257 166 

Unaccented Vowels in " Gabe," etc., §§ 258, 259 . 167 

Diphthongs in Ei, Haus, Heu, § 260 . . . 168 

Nasal Vowels, § 261 168 



Contents. 

PAGE 

X. German Synthesis, §§ 262-269 169 

Vowels followed by r, §§ 262, 263 . . . . 169 

Quantity, §§ 264-266 170 

Accent, § 267 172 

Intonation, § 268 173 

Syllables, § 269 173 

XL Symbolization of German Sounds, §§ 270-274 . . 174 

The Consonants, §§ 270-273 174 

The Vowels, § 274 177 



PAET II. 



BEADING LESSONS AND EXERCISES. 



Peose Reading Book. 



. JEsop's Fables 



Introductory. Spelling Lessons 
I. The Fox and the Goat .... 
II. The Miser 

III. The Cock and the Jewel .... 

IV. The Crab and her Mother 
V. The Miller, his Son, and their Ass . 

VI. The Country Maid and her Milk-Can . 
VII. The Frogs Asking for a King . 
VIII. The Country Mouse and the Town Mouse 

IX. The Ass's Shadow 

X. The Monkey and the Dolphin 
XL The Wind and the Sun .... 
XII. The Fox without a Tail .... 

XLTI. Raleigh's Two Plants 16 

XIV. A Boy's Adventures among the Sea-Caves . Hugh Miller 17 
XV. The Discontented Pendulum .... Jane Taylor 23 

XVI. The Little Drummer-Boy 26 

XVII. The Jowf in Arabia Palgrave 29 

XVIII. The Society of Books Buskin 30 



5 
8 
8 
9 
9 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
14 
15 



Contents. xi 

Poetey Beading Book. 

page 

The Street of By-and-By Abdy 31 

The Jackdaw of Eheims Barham 32 

The Child with the Bird at the Bush . . . Bunyan 36 

The Destruction of Sennacherib .... Byron 37 

The Mariners of England Campbell 38 

Answer to a Child's Question .... Coleridge 40 

The Pine-Apple and the Bee Cowper 40 

The Ketired Cat „ 41 

The Contest between the Nose and the Eyes „ 44 

John Gilpin „ 45 

At Sea Cunningham 53 

William Tell ....*... Gurney 54 

Monkey's Manners Hood 58 

Song of the Street Monkey ,, 59 

The Dormouse Howitt 59 

The Grasshopper and the Cricket .... Keats 60 

Ode to the Cuckoo Logan 61 

The Miller of Dee Mackay 62 

One by One Proctor 63 

Lochinvar Scott 64 

After Blenheim Southey 66 

Some Murmur Trench 68 

Exercises. 

Exercises in Writing English Phonetically 69 

Appendices. 

Specimens of French. 

L'Anthropophage 79 

Les Deux Palmiers 80 

La Maison qui Marche 80 

Specimens of German. 

Lines from "Wilhelm Tell" 83 

Song by Uhland 84 

Extract from Gothe's " Leiden des jungen Werthers" . . 84 

Specimen of English, showing variable words. 

The Iceberg 86 



ALPHABETS, TABLES 



AND 



DIAGRAMS 



ALPHABETS. 



THE ENGLISH ALPHABET. 



Stops 





The Con 


SONANTS. 




f p 






' wh 




b 






w 




t 






f 




d 






Y 




k 




-t-= 


th — as ir 


l thistle, Arthur 


k g— as 
r m 


in get, egg 


d3 

a 

• I— 1 

-4= 


dh ,, 
s 


this, father 
seal, hiss 


n 




o 

a 


z 


zeal, his 


ng ,, 
1 


singer, sink 


sh 

zh ,, 


glazier, pleasure 


, r 






y 

{ h 


- 



Composite 



Liquids 



ch = t + sh, as in chest, batch 
j = d + zh, „ jest, badge 
m', n', 1', are used for syllabic m, n, 1, as in sizm', ritn', 

botr (schism, written, bottle). 

n-g, w-h, t-h, d-h, s-h, z-h are used for the sounds in en- 
gage, blow-hole, out-house, blood-hound, mishap and hogshead. 

Names of the Consonants. 
They are called pa, ba, ta, da, ka, ga, ma, na, nga, la, 

ra, and so on, as in pa-rental, ba-zaar, ta-boo, Da-rius, calam- 
ity, ga-zette, ma-ture, na-tivity, si-nge(r), la-ment, ra-vine. 

C, Q and X. 
These symbols are not used in this scheme, except c in the 
combination ch. In ordinary spelling c is used for k or s, as 
in cat, cell ; q is used for k, as in quick ; and x is used for ks 
or gz, and xi for ksh, as in box, exist, noxious. 



a 
o 

S-l 






The Vowels. 
The Vowels. 



Long, 
a — as in ba 



oe 
e 

ey 

1 
o 
ow 

.A 

u 



boen (bum) 
feri (fairy) 
feyt (/ate) 
fit (/fee*) 
Pol (PawZ) 
powl (pole) 
pul (pooZ) 







XV 



Short. 
a — as in atend (attend) 
„ po3ti (putty) 
„ past (pa£) 
» pet 
„ pit 
„ pot 

,, pilo' (pillow) 
„ put 



ai — as in taim (time) 
au ,, laud (loud) 
oi ,, noiz (noise) 
yu ,, tyun (tune) 
yu ,, regyular (regular) 



Diphthongs. 

ea — as in bear 

ia ,, biar (bier) 



oa 
ua 



boar 
buar (boor) 



Names of the Short Vowels. 

They are called a, 03 1, set, et, it, ot, short o, ut, as in the 

key- words attend, putty, pat, pet, pit, pot, pillow, put. 



Script Forms. 

The script forms of 28 and 03 can be written without lifting 
the pen, thus : — 



se 



oe 



Stress. 

Stressed or accented syllables may generally be known 
by rule ; but when it is necessary to indicate them they are 
marked thus : intend, invest, info'mal, impo'tant. 



XVI 



Alphabets. 



THE FRENCH ALPHABET. 



The Consonants. 



Stops ■{ 



Liquids 



-as in regne (ren) 






05 

a 

c3 
• i—i 
O 

O 



m- 


-as in prisme 


*1 


>» 


peuple 


r 


>> 


autre 


u 


>> 


buis 


w 


)j 


moi (mwa) 


f 






Y 






S 






Z 






ch 


M 


cto = Eng. sh 


J 


»J 


j'e = Eng. zh 


y 


>J 


fo'm (byew) 



The Vowels. 



Oral. Nasal. 

as in pate aw 
patte 

pres en 
ete 

fini 

2un — as in pan 

en ,, pin, bien 





a- 


-as 




a 






e 




-+3 

O H 


e 
e 

i 





Oral. Nasal. 

— as in homme on 
drole 
tout 

peur eun 
peu 
pu 

on — as in pont 
eun „ un, jeun 




All the vowels may be long or short, except e and e, which 
are always short. 

Long vowels are written thus : a:, 



The German Alphabet. 



xvii 



THE GEEMAN ALPHABET. 



The Consonants. 





P 




w — lip-h 


p, as otten m zwei 




b 




f 






t 




Y 




Stops - 


d 




S 






k 




Z 






1 

, ' — the glottal stop 

m 
n 


w 
c8 

• 


O 

O 


sh 
zh 

5 
J 


ich 
Eng. yet 


Liquids ■ 


ng 

1 

r 




x 

9 


ach 

N. Ger. Wag en 




r 2 — guttural r 






The 1 


OWELS. 




Long. 


Short. 


a : — as in lahm 


a — 


as in Lamm 


r a : , , mdhen 


e 


„ G<x6e 


Front \ e : ,, geh 
I i : ,, ihn 


Front | ? 


,, Manner 


Back- Jo: ,, Sohn 
round \ u: ,, Kuh 


Back- J o 
round \ u 


,, Sonne 


,, dumm 


Front- f 6 : ,, Sohne 
round \ ti: ,, kuhn 


Front- J 6 
round \ li 


,, konnen 


,, dilnn 




Dipht] 


tiong 


s. 





ai, au, oi, as in ifo', Haus, Heu. 
b 



xvm 



CO 

EH 
52! 

<5 
55 
O 
w 
55 
O 

o 

w 

CO 

l-H 
t^ 

55 

ft 
O 

m 
w 

o 



Throat. 
Breath. 










43 


M 'P a3 J°A 

o 

PQ -q^aig; 


'00 


*0fl 

S3 








Front. 
Voiced. 








5>» 


EH 

h 

M 
O 

Ph 


Ph W •q^aia 








43 

N 

43 
00 


© -peoiOA 

a 


13 


pi 


p— < 


H 


CO 


eh W -peoiOA 

K EH 
M H 

O S 

P4 g -qi^a 










43 
43 

+3 


, W 'P 93 I°A 

P-l EH 

1-1 ^ •q^8Ja 










X 
CM 


03 

Hi 

M 
hi 












43 


O B 












<D 'P 90 I A 

a 

33 "ww^h 


43 


a 









02 
O 

GO 



c3 

02 



02 EH 



spmbirj 



02 
-+= 

CD H 
Qj O 

O a 
o 
O 



XIX 



CQ 

S3 
<1 
55 
O 

CO 

O 

O 

M 
o 
ft 

H 
« 

o 

H 

H 
W 
o 

CQ 



EH 

<l 

O 

W 

EH 












o 

PQ -q^ajta 


•00 

M 






CM 




g -paoioA 
o 




ti 






>> 


EH 

H 
O 


■peoioA. 

OhPQ 

•q^aia 










2 s 

N 

•F-3 

2" 

CO 


6 -paoioA 

a 

co "q^ag 







l-H 


5h 


09 


EH H 

O H 

to 8 












Pn Eh 










> 1 


Lips. 


Mg 

* -q^aaa 












^ -p 9: >! A 








S3 


•peopA 
•q^aa 













CO 

O 
-+= 
CQ 



co 
5ZJ 



EH 



CD 

• l-H 

CQ 



spmbuj 



CO 

-»■=» 

2 A 
P-i O 

o 
O 



XX 



w 

EH 

o 

w. 
5zj 
O 

O 

o 

O 

H 
S 

H 

Pd 
o 

&9 



EH 














«4 




xa 












O 




-13 

0) 


« 








-c 


H 




PQ 












a 




■P 90 I°A 


'OO 


•00 




- 


Cr> 


«u 
















pq 




■q^aig 


^J 








X 


EH 




'P 9D I°A 










^ 


Q 














*^^ 


S 














•"—9 


ft 




•q^aig 










o> 




J> a5 


■p8DI0_\ 








A 




C3 












fcJI 




■5 <3 














Eh 


c-4 


•q^Baag 










.4 

CO 


g 
















O 
Oh 


ft 

2 


•paoio^V 


ts 


c 


i-H 


91 


N 




33 


•q^aig; 


-+j 








CO 


H W 














ft EH 














a H 














PhH 














, w 




•paoioA 










> 


PM EH 
















w H 
















1-3 H 

&H 




-q^-Bsig 










«M 




« 5 


•paoiOA 














od 3 














CQ 


z>2 


•q^'Baig 












■H"^ 


■paopA 












P4 


9 s 














M 


2 s 














k1 


r*" 1 O 


■q^ajg; 












d 


•paoio^v 


-o 


a 






§ 




ft, 
















S 
















X 


•q^ajg 


A 











00 

O 

■4= 

QQ 



c3 

CQ 



<X> 
QQ 



- 



spmbirj 





CO 




•w 




CI 


fl 


c5 


cu 


fl 


P4 


o 


o 


c 




o 




O 



XXI 



CO 

«l 
55 
O 

CQ 

52! 

O 

O 

525 

b 

Q 

W 
o 

H 

B 
ft 

W 

CQ 

l— I 

5zi 

& 
o 

a 
w 

o 

CQ 

Q 

H 

525 

i— t 

ffl 

o 
O 



EH 
















< 

O 




.a 


B 








A 


H 

EH 




n 












M 




■paoioA 


'00 








£rs 


o 
















•« 
















pq 




•q^QJta 


^ 






U S* 


X 


EH 




•paoioA 




«4 






>> 


O 
ft 








^. 










•q^sia 




«3 






o> 
















^ 




■4J 0) 


•paaiOA. 










N 




0-73 
















"S.S 














EH 


PhM 


•qcfeajg 










,4 
CQ 


O 

&H 


a5 

ft 

g 


•paoiOA 


^d 


d 


i-h 


&H 


N 




CO 


•q^aag 


+J 


« 


ij-»i 


*< 


09 


. 












,JCJ 


Eh W 
fc EH 




•paoio^v 








^ 


M S 














O a 

PMEH 




•q^Bajg 








,4 


, W 

Cm EH 




'P 83 J°A 










> 


w S 








i 






EH 




•q^ajg 








<W 




M"^ 


•peoiOA 










» 




"3 g 














CO 


o3 s 


•q^ag 










43 


■ti'O 


•paopA 










§ 


Cn 


B fl 














M 


2 3 














^ 




•q^aaa 










„^ 


© 


•paopA 


^5 


g 






§ 




P. 
















a 












/^"•s 




CO 


q^ajg 


A 


a 






§ 



CQ 
O 
CQ 



c3 

CO 

e3 




spmbiq 



XXII 



w 

go 
i— i 

5zj 

ft 

o 
t> 

& 
o 

ft 
s 
ft 
H 
o 

GQ 





























CD 
CD 


4= 


CD 


CD 


'c3 


3 
















>5 


v — ** 


S * 


8 








c^ 

B 




t>M 


mH 


CD 


CD 


<© 








O 






















« 






















ft 


P. 

P 

O 
































9 s 




















o3 


5-i 






















P 




















r— ( 
• r- 1 


-Q 




















> 


« — / 
































Q 












<D 










S 










CS 


O 










M 






















k=rl 






















<< 


s 

p 

o 




- 






















































'IIT 




















^ N 


CD 




















-*3 


JZ 




















P 


■+3 




















^2 


c3 






















«^ 






V 














8 


<o3 












/ ^- N 






















£ 














< 








O 














PQ 


Q 
1Z5 

P 

O 






i— i 

i— i 

o 
















fi 


'o 
o 

<3 


■4= 

p 


o 
o 










I— H 
P 

c3 


o 

o 



CD 
CO 
O 

f— t 

o 



rd 




CD 


p 


CO 


CD 


O 


P. 


13 


O 


s-i 


«+-i 


»— i 




oa 


e3 


w 


w 



p 

CD 

Pm 

o 



xxm 



o 

« 

O 
fa 

o 

W 

o 

















> 














' 










a 














cS 










•i— i 














DS 

c5 










3j 














£ 


"3 








-CD 

02 

3 










H 






•p-i 




»o 




-CO 










!zi 






















O 
P3 














9 s 1 








ft 


Q 
!?5 


"3 

m 

ft 










-3- 




















(9 










P 

O 




9" 




9" 

CD 




eu (peur) 


























^ 






















■+3 
























-4=> 
























c3 
























3 






















ti 
























M 




















^ 


Q 

P 

O 








"aT 


































Ph 




1 




CO 












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XXVI 



Diagrams. 




I. 



a Nose, b Hard Palate, c Soft Palate, d Mouth, e Tongue. /Pharynx. #Hyoid 
Bone, h Epiglottis. i Glottis. k Vocal Chord. I Thyroid Cartilage, m Larynx. 
n n Cricoid Cartilage, o Windpipe. %> Gullet. 



Diagrams. 



xxvii 





Laryngoscopic view of the Female 
Glottis in the delivery of a Headnote 
(ordinary appearance). 



III. 

Laryngoscopic view of the Male Glottis 
in the delivery of a Low Note. 




c£Sb, 




IV. 










F. Co.) 



F.(u)t 
F.(eu).ey 






Tongue 



V. 

Diagram illustrating the formation of the Ten Principal Vowels. Rounded Vowels 
are enclosed in brackets. 



INTEODUCTION. 

§ 1. The object and plan of this book are indicated in its 
title and table of contents, but they need to be explained 
somewhat more fully. 

It is not written for the purpose of bringing about a reform 
in the spelling of the English language, although, in the opinion 
of all philologists, and of many of the most thoughtful teachers, 
this is greatly to be desired. A study of the sounds of English 
will, it is to be hoped, prepare the way for that reform, which 
still seems to be in the far distance ; but in the meantime 
English people need to know the sounds of their mother tongue 
for three reasons : (1) that they may speak it correctly ; (2) 
that they may learn successfully the pronunciation of other 
languages, to which a knowledge of their own is the best 
introduction ; and (3) that those who wish to study philology 
may have a key to that science. And the sounds of our 
language cannot be studied or explained without some system 
of phonetic spelling. 

§ 2. Importance of the Subject. In the present day the 
importance of good English elocution is beginning to be duly 
recognised, and it is felt that modern languages ought to be 
more widely and efficiently taught than they have been hitherto. 
Philologists also tell us very plainly that an acquaintance with 
the written symbols of a language is not an adequate knowledge 
of the language itself, of which these symbols are but a more or 
less imperfect representation. 

§ 3. A Better System needed. But we are not making 
much progress in this direction. Even amongst well-educated 
people, a clear and beautiful pronunciation of the English 

1 



2 Introduction. [§§ 4, 5. 

language, without slovenliness or affectation, is exceedingly 
rare, and it is still more unusual to hear Englishmen speak 
French or German clearly and intelligibly, whilst lecturers 
on etymology find the students' ignorance of the sounds of 
language a serious barrier to their progress. Nor is this to be 
wondered at. For whilst we aim at teaching all other subjects 
on some well-planned method, the sounds of language are left 
to be picked up anyhow, by mere imitation and sheer force 
of memory, so that, setting aside students of shorthand, it is 
probable that not one person in a thousand could enumerate 
the principal sounds of our language, or of any other, or has 
any clear conception of the principles on which they should be 
classified. 

And any teacher wishing to prepare himself to instruct a 
class in the first elements of phonetics is met by this serious 
difficulty, that there is no easy manual of phonetics to be had 
in which the sounds of English, French and German are 
simply explained. So this work is an attempt to supply the 
deficiency. 

§ 4. Prominence giyen to English Phonetics. The greater 
part of the book is devoted to English sounds : (1) because we 
ought to proceed from the known to the unknown, and any 
confusion in our minds concerning English sounds will lead us 
to mix them up unawares with the sounds of other languages ; 
(2) because when the principles of phonetics have once been 
taught and illustrated in our own language, this need not be 
repeated; and (3) because the sounds of English are more 
difficult than those of French and German. 

§ 5. A New Alphabet necessary. The alphabets used in 
this book need a few words of explanation, as the need for a 
new alphabet is not obvious at first sight. The prevailing 
notion seems to be that nothing is easier than to spell phoneti- 
cally with our present alphabet. But in point of fact the 
Eoman alphabet, originally planned for a language with a 
simpler sound system, has not nearly symbols enough for the 



§§6, 7.] Introduction. 3 

very numerous sounds of our language. For instance, we have 
no symbols by which we can distinguish u in but and in put, 
th in this and in thistle, or s in lesser and leisure. So the 
deficiency must be remedied and the alphabet supplemented, 
either (1) by new letters, or (2) by using diacritic signs, or 
(3) by combining the old letters to form digraphs, as we are 
accustomed to do, for example, when we use th, sh, ng, ee, oo, 
to represent simple sounds. 

§ 6. Characteristics of Alphabets used here. The objects 
aimed at in planning the alphabets used in this book are, to 
make the phonetic writing easy to read, to write and to print, 
by keeping as close to the received usage as possible. So no 
new or turned letters are used, and very few diacritic signs. 
The alphabet is supplemented chiefly by means of digraphs. 

There would have been some obvious advantages in using 
the international alphabet of the Maitre Phonetique, which can 
be adapted to any language, and where there is a single symbol 
for each sound. But this would necessitate the introduction 
of a good many new characters, as well as many departures 
from the usage of each particular nation, making the system 
much more difficult to read, to write and to print. The 
question is so often asked, by persons to whom the subject is 
new, " Could I read your phonetic writing at first sight?" 
that it is well to reduce this initial difficulty as much as 
possible ; and the labour of teaching children to write new 
characters, and the trouble of getting them printed, are con- 
siderations of some importance. 

The English alphabet used here is based upon Mr. Sweet's 
Broad Eomic and the late Mr. W. E. Evan's Union. The 
French and German alphabets are original. 

§ 7. The Subject carefully graduated. Great pains have 
been taken to graduate the subject, so as to make it intelligible 
to beginners. For instance, the consonants are treated before 
the vowels, as being easier to distinguish from one another, 
and to classify, according to the manner in which they are 



4 Introduction. [§§ 8, 9. 

formed. Some experience in teaching young children has been 
very valuable as showing in what order it is expedient to deal 
with the various parts of the subject, and special instructions 
for teachers will be found in Chap. VI. 

§ 8. Selection of Passages for Reading. The passages 
for reading have been selected with a view to the requirements 
of children of ten years of age and upwards. It would be by 
far the best plan to teach children the sounds of the English 
language systematically from the very beginning, and to let 
them learn phonetic spelling before they attempt to spell in any 
other way. They would then articulate much better, and the 
irregularities of our ordinary spelling would be more accurately 
observed and more easily remembered, when the pupils had 
some fixed standard with which they could compare them. 
But teachers in elementary schools are not free to begin with 
phonetic spelling, and in secondary schools, where the need 
for phonetics will be more easily recognised, on account of the 
necessity for teaching French and German, and where there is 
more liberty of action, most of the children have learnt to read 
and begun to spell before admission. It will therefore be 
necessary, as a rule, to postpone the teaching of phonetics until 
they are at least ten years of age, so that they may have a fair 
knowledge of the ordinary spelling before they attempt any 
fresh system. And meantime the teacher, who has himself 
acquired a knowledge of phonetics, will have his perceptions 
of sound so sharpened that he will be able to do much, without 
any systematic lessons in phonetics, to correct defects of pro- 
nunciation and to train his pupils to pronounce English clearly 
and well. 

§ 9. Oral Teaching necessary. It is not pretended that 
the use of this, or of any other book on phonetics, can supersede 
oral teaching, but it is hoped that this popular exposition of the 
sounds of English, French and German may enable teachers 
to acquire for themselves the first principles of phonetics, and 
make their oral teaching systematic and effectual. 



§ 10.] Introduction. 5 

§ 10. In conclusion, I may say that this work has not been 
undertaken without careful preparation. It is now more than 
thirty years since I first began to study the sounds of English, 
French and German, so that the book is the result of personal 
observation as well as of reading, and I hope it will prove re- 
liable. The soundness of the French and German sections is, 
I think, sufficiently guaranteed by M. Paul Passy and Prof. W. 
Vietor, for this part of the book is based upon their writings, 
and has been thoroughly revised by them. They assure me 
also that I have succeeded in acquiring a good pronunciation 
of French and German. 

As regards the sounds of English, I have not found myself 
able to follow any one phonetician in particular, nor to use the 
vowel system of Mr. Bell, which is adopted, with some modifi- 
cations, by Messrs. Ellis and Sweet. But in this I am not 
singular, for the Bell system is not generally accepted by 
foreign phoneticians. I have however learnt much from the 
writings of Dr. Sweet, and especially from his Elementarbuch. 

The writers from whom I have derived most assistance in 
preparing this volume are Sweet, Yietor, Passy, Murray (in the 
New English Dictionary), Ellis, and the late Mr. W. R. Evans. 
I have also profited from the works of Beyer, Trautmann, Tech- 
mer, Jespersen, and others, and have learnt something from 
the dictionaries of Walker and Stormonth, though the phonetic 
systems of these dictionaries are very imperfect, especially as 
regards unaccented vowels. 

I am also indebted to the kindness of many fellow-workers 
for help and criticisms of various kinds ; to the late Frau Flohr, 
for first giving me an interest in phonetics, by her excellent 
lessons in German pronunciation ; to the late Mr. W. R. Evans, 
Dr. Sweet, and Prof. Skeat for various useful criticisms ; and 
most of all to Prof. Vietor, M. Passy, Dr. Ellis, and Prof. A. 
Schroer, for oral instruction and for reading and revising my 
book. 

I have also to thank Prof. Vietor, Dr. Techmer and Sir 



6 Introdtiction. [§11. 

Morell Mackenzie, for permission to use diagrams ; and Mr. 
Murray for allowing me to borrow twelve of James's M sop's 
Fables. 

It may be useful to append here a list of some of the most 
necessary books on phonetics, originally prepared for the Con- 
ference of the Teachers' Guild in April, 1890. 



§ 11. LIST OF BOOKS EECOMMENDED TO STUDENTS. 

English, Feench and Geeman. 

(1) Le Maitre Phonetique. Organe de l'Association Phone- 

tique Internationale. (11 route de Fontenay, Bourg- 
la-Eeine, Seine.) Monthly : price per ami., 4 fr. ; 
per single number, 35 centimes. For members of 
the Association, 3 fr. per ann. 

(2) Primer of Phonetics. Henry Sweet. (Clarendon Press, 

1890.) 3s. 6d. 

(3) Elemente der Phonetik und Orthoepie des Deutschen, 

Englischen und Franzosischen, von Wilhelm Vietor. 
4. durchgesehene Aunage. (0. E. Eeisland, Leipzig, 
1898.) 7 marks ; half -bound, 8 m. 

(4) Kleine Phonetik des Deutschen, Englischen und Franzo- 

sischen. (0. E. Eeisland, Leipzig, 1897.) Marks 
240. 

(5) Elements of Phonetics : English, French and German. 

Wilhelm Vietor. Translated and adapted by Walter 
Bippmann. (J. M. Dent & Co., London, 1898.) 
2s. 6d. net. 

(6) Phonetische Studien. Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche 

und praktische Phonetik. Herausgegeben von 
Wilhelm Vietor. Six vols. (N. G. Elwert, Marburg 
in Hessen, 1888—1893.) Marks 36 net. 

(7) Die Neueren Sprachen. Zeitschrift fur den neusprach- 

lichen Unterricht. Zugleich Fortsetzung der Phone- 



§ 11.] Boohs Becommended to Students. 7 

tischen Studien. Herausgegeben von Wilhelm Vietor. 
(N. G. Elwert, Marburg in Hessen.) Ten numbers 
appear in the year. Marks 12 per ann. 

English. 

(1) Elementarbuch des Gesprochenen Englisch. Henry 

Sweet. 3rd ed. (Clarendon Press, 1891.) 2s. Qd. 

(2) Primer of Spoken English. Henry Sweet. 2nd ed. 

(Clarendon Press, 1898.) 3s. 6d. 

(3) The Teacher's Manual. (Soames's Phonetic Method 

for Learning to Eead.) Two parts. (Swan Sonnen- 
schein & Co., London, 1897.) Each 2s. 6d. 

(4) Albany Phonetic Headers. (Soames's Method.) Three 

numbers. (Swan Sonnenschein & Co., London, 
1893.) 4d., ±d. and 8d. 

(5) Northern English. B. J. Lloyd. (Vietor's Skizzen 

Lebender Sprachen. I.) (B. G. Teubner, Leipzig, 
1899.) Marks 3. 

Fkench. 

(1) Les Sons du Frangais. Leur Formation, leur Combi- 

naison, leur Eepresentation. Paul Passy. 4 e ed. 
(Firmin-Didot, Paris, 1895.) 1 fr. 50 c. 

(2) Le Frangais Parle. Morceaux choisis a l'usage des 

etrangers, avec la Prononciation Figuree. Paul 
Passy. 4 e ed. (0. E. Eeisland, Leipzig, 1897.) 
Marks 1-80. 

(3) Premier (Deuzieme) Livre de Lecture. Paul Passy. 3 e 

ed. (Librairie Populaire, Paris, 1896-1890.) 30 c. 
and 50 c. 

(4) 25 Cantiques Populaires : also, L'Evangile de Luc; Actes 

des Apotres ; Lettre aux Philippines ; L'Evangile de 
Jean; La Legende du 4 e Mage; Lectures Variees, en 
transcription phonetique. Paul Passy. (Librairie 
Populaire, Paris, 1893 ff.) 25 c. to 2 fr. 50 c. 



8 Introduction. [§ 11. 

(5) Abrige de Pronunciation Frangaise (Phonetique et 

Orthoepie). Paul Passy. (0. E. Eeisland, Leipzig, 
1897.) Marks 1. 

(6) Phrases de tous les jours. Felix Franke. T ed. (0. 

E. Eeisland, Leipzig, 1896.) Marks 0*80. 

(7) Ergdnzungsheft (to 6). Felix Franke. 4 e ed. (0. E. 

Eeisland, Leipzig, 1894.) 

(8) Fransk Begynderbog. Otto Jespersen. 2. udg. (Carl 

Larsen, Copenhagen, 1897.) 3 kr. 

(9) Franzosische Phonetik, fur Lehrer und Studierende. 

Franz Beyer. 2. Aufl. (Otto Schulze, Cothen, 
1897.) Marks 4-80. 

(10) Elementarbuch des Gesprochenen Franzosisch. F. 

Beyer und P. Passy. (Otto Schulze, Cothen, 1893.) 
Marks 2.50. 

(11) Ergdnzungsheft (to 10). F. Beyer. (Otto Schulze, 

Cothen, 1893.) 

(12) Franzosische Aussprache und Sprachfertigkeit. Phone- 

tik sowie mundliche und schriftliche tlbungen im 
Klassenunterrichte. 3rd ed. Karl Quiehl. (N. G. 
Elwert, Marburg in Hessen, 1898.) . Marks 3-20, 
half -bound, m. 3-80. 

German. 

(1) German Pronunciation : Practice and Theory. By 

Wilhelm Victor, Ph.D., M.A. (Marburg). 2nd ed. 
(Henninger Brothers, Heilbronn, 1890.) Marks 
1-50; cloth, m. 2. 

(2) Lesebuch in Lautschrift. Wilhelm Victor. 1st part. 

(B. G. Teubner, Leipzig, 1899.) Marks 3. 

(3) Deutsche Biihnenaussprache. Ergebnisse der Bera- 

tungen zur ausgleichenden Eegelung der deutschen 
Buhnenaussprache . . . Irn Auftrage der Kommis- 
sion herausgegeben von Theodor Siebs. (Albert 
Ahn, Berlin, Koln und Leipzig, 1898.) Marks 2. 



§ 11.] Books Recommended to Students. 9 

The most necessary for beginners of the books above 
mentioned are Sweet's Primer of Spoken English, Passy's 
Sons du Franpais, Vietor's German Pronunciation, and the 
Maitre Phone tique. 

Professor Vietor's Elemente der Phonetik -will also be found 
extremely useful as giving a comparative view of English, 
French and German sounds, and Neuere Sprachen is essential 
to those who wish to keep abreast of the rapidly advancing 
science of Phonetics. 



I. 

THE VOCAL OEGANS DESCKIBED. 

§ 12. It is impossible to explain and classify the sounds 
of any language without first describing the apparatus by 
which human speech is formed. The organs of speech are 
the lungs, with the bronchial tubes, the windpipe, the upper 
portion of which is called the larynx, the pharynx, or passage 
immediately above the windpipe and gullet, the mouth and the 
nose. 

A general view of the organs of speech, excepting the lungs 
and the bronchial tubes, is given in diagram I., whilst II. and 

III. give views of the larnyx as seen in the laryngoscope, and 

IV. shows the glottis, or slit in the larynx through which the 
breath passes, opened more or less widely according to the 
manner in which it is used. 

§ 13. The Lungs. The function of the lungs in speech is 
simply to act as bellows, and to propel the air through the 
windpipe to the larynx, where the voice is formed. The notion 
that some voice sounds are formed in the chest, whilst others 
proceed from the head, and so on, is very widely prevalent, 
but it is a delusion to suppose that the voice can be formed 
anywhere except in the larynx. 

§ 14. The Larynx is the upper part of the windpipe. It 
may be seen in men to form the projection in the throat 
familiarly called Adam's apple. In the larynx are two horizontal 
membranes called the vocal chords, which appear in diagrams 
II. and III. as two parallel white bands in the centre of the 
larynx. They are connected by membranes called ventricular 

(10) 



§§ 15, 16.] The Vocal Organs Described. 11 

bands with the walls of the larynx, so that the air from the 
lungs is obliged to pass between them. The opening between 
the vocal chords is called the glottis. 

§ 15. The Glottis. The vocal chords are attached at the 
back to two movable cartilages, called the arytenoid cartilages, 
fig. IV. cc, and the diagram shows how the glottis may be 
opened to leave a passage for the breath, or entirely closed so 
as to stop it, or how the cartilages at the back may be open and 
the vocal chords closed, or the reverse. When the stream of 
breath, passing through the larynx, causes the vocal chords, or 
lips of the glottis, to vibrate, it produces the sound we call 
voice. 

Fig. IV. 1 represents the glottis opened as wide as possible, 
both back and front, as it would be for blowing out a candle. 
IV. 2 shows it in the position for sounding the letter h, when 
the opening is reduced, but the vocal chords are not made to 
vibrate. They are only brought sufficiently near to one another 
to cause a slight friction of the breath against their edges. In 
IV. 3 we see an opening in the cartilaginous glottis alone, used 
for whispering. IV. 4 and 5, which should be compared with 
II. and III., show the glottis as it is during the emission of the 
voice, when the vocal chords are vibrating. It will be observed 
that, for the upper register (IV. 4), only a small portion of the 
vocal chords can vibrate, as they are partially closed, whilst the 
cartilaginous glottis is completely shut ; and in this register the 
glottis is alternately open and shut, so that the air passes 
between the chords in a series of puffs. But for the lower 
register (IV. 5) the chords vibrate in their whole length, and 
the cartilaginous glottis is slightly opened. IV. 6 represents 
the glottis completely shut, so that the breath is quite stopped. 
In coughing, or clearing the throat, it is closed in this manner, 
and then suddenly opened with an explosion ; and the same 
action, used in speaking, is called the glottal stop. 

§ 16. The Superglottal Passages, through which the 
breath passes when it has left the larynx, form a resonance 



12 The Vocal Organs Described. [§ 17. 

chamber, modifying the quality of the voice. Sounds can be 
formed by the breath in these passages, without any vibration 
of the vocal chords, as for instance, s and sh, used in hissing 
and hushing, but not the sound we call voice. 

The breath passes first into the pharynx, which is separated 
from the larynx by a movable lid called the epiglottis. This 
lid is closed in the act of swallowing, to prevent the food from 
passing into the windpipe and choking us. And from the 
pharynx it passes out through the mouth or the nose. 

The passage through the nose can be opened or closed by 
the movements of the soft palate (I. c). For although the front 
half of the palate is hard, the back part, to which is attached 
the little tongue called the uvula, is soft and movable. By 
lowering the soft palate we allow the air to pass behind it and 
escape by the nose, as it commonly does when we are at rest ; 
but in speaking and singing the soft palate is raised, and the 
nose passage shut, so that the breath all passes through the 
mouth, except when we pronounce those vowels and consonants 
which are called nasal. 

It is by the movements of the lips, tongue and soft palate 
that the various vowels and consonants are formed, as we shall 
see when considering them in detail. 

§ 17. The vocal organs have been compared to various kinds 
of instruments, but Dr. Morell Mackenzie says, " The larynx is 
a musical instrument unique in construction, which cannot, 
strictly speaking, be classed with any other sound-producing 
apparatus. It bears a close resemblance, however, to the so- 
called reed instruments, though differing from them in several 
important points. Eeeds are of different kinds, but the essential 
feature in all is that they break up a continuous current of air 
into a series of jets or puffs. The vocal reeds are elastic 
membranes which must be stretched between the fixed points 
of attachment before they can be made to vibrate. This is 
effected by the action of the various muscles acting on the 
chords, and the degree of tension can be altered and the 



§ 17.] The Vocal Organs Described. 13 

vibrating element lengthened or shortened at will, so that one 
chord serves the purpose of many reeds of different sizes, a 
triumph of economy of material combined with perfection of 
mechanism to which there is nothing comparable in any musical 
instrument made with hands." 



II. 

ENGLISH SOUNDS ILLUSTKATED. 

§ 18. The very first step in the study of phonetics should 
be to learn to distinguish the sounds of the mother tongue ; 
and as many of these are obscured by our ordinary spelling, it 
seems necessary to illustrate them very fully, as is done in the 
following examples. 

It will be found that some sounds have been more fully 
illustrated than others. This is done to meet the requirements 
of teachers, who may be glad to find a large number of examples 
of the rarer and more difficult sounds, to serve as examples in 
class teaching. 

Amongst the examples are some rare and very irregular 
words, which may perhaps seem superfluous. These are not 
meant for children ; but just because they are so seldom heard, 
it may be convenient to show how they ought to be pronounced. 
Some of these rare words are taken from a list drawn up by Dr. 
Ellis, and now out of print. 

The Consonants Illusteated. 

§ 19. The symbols used to represent the consonants in 
ordinary spelling are as follows : — 

p. Symbols : — p, pp, ph, pe, ppe, gh ; as in 

pen ClaPB.am steppB 

happy GrimthorPB Hiccough. 

b. Symbols : — b, bb, pb, be ; as in 

Bed eBB cuPBoard MorecamBE 

(U) 



§§ 19, 20.] The Consonants Illustrated. 15 

t. Symbols : — t, tt, ed, th, tw, bt, ct, pt, cht, phth, z, te, tte ; 
as in 
Ten Tnyme indicT PHTHmc (tizik) 

beTTer two receive mezzotint (metso'tint) 

stopp'ED deBT 2/acHT casTB gazeTTE 

d. Symbols : — d, dd, ed } de, Id, dh, ddh, bd ; as in 

i>en beggEB wowlt> BwDT>mst 

add ftorDE WynDnam Bdellium 

k. Symbols : — k, c, q, ck, ch, cc, cq, qu, que, Ik, gh, sc, x, tch, 
ke, Ike, quh, cch ; as in 

-Kill quell acquaint houGB. Butke 

call bacK liquor viscount FoijK&stone 

havoc acB.e barqvB except Urqunart 

sceptic account waisK haTcuel Bacchanal 

g. Symbols :— g, gg, gh, gue, ckg, gge; as in 

go ecG GRost leaGUE blacKQcuard Bainbric-GB 

§ 20. m. Symbols : — m, mm, gm, Im, mb, mn, mp, me, mme, chm, 
n, nte, Imonde ; as in 

Man laMB holwE Ba^ff 

hawser hymn prograuMB PonTEfract (Pcemfrit) 

phlecM. HaMvden dracnm. Choi,Non-D&ley (Choemli) 

psaiiM 

n. Symbols : — n, nn, en, on, gn, hn, kn, mn, pn, sn, In, dn, nd, 
nh, nw, mp, ne, nne, gne, dding ; as in 

set Gnaw -pneumatics ribanD bornv 

dinner John puisne ipecacuanha Anns 

opening Know Lincoln gunwale co^gne 

pardoning Mnemonics Wednesday coweter stuBDinG-sail 

ng. Symbols : — ng, n, nd, ngue, ngh, nz ; as in 

thinG handkerchief BirminGnam 
think Tongue Menzies 



J 



16 English Sounds Illustrated. [§§ 21, 22. 

Additional examples of ng written n before g, k, c, q, ch 
and x ; i.e., before the sounds g and k : — 

finger hungry monkey banquet 

anger sink ancle anchor 

angry thank uncle anxious 

Monger donkey conquer lynx 

§ 21. 1. Symbols: — I, 11, si, gl, Id, Iw, le, lie, sle, In, al, uall ; 
as in 
-Let seraGLio earns kii>n 

weisL GuiLvford gazeiASF* MagdKLen 

island WooLwich aisLE victxsA.'ULer 

r. Symbols : — r, rr, rh, wr, rw, rwh, re, rre, rrh, rps ; as in 

■Red nnetoric Norwich Steeps myp.BE. 

menny w&ite Tynvmitt partep,p,E corps 

§ 22. wh. Symbol : — wh ; as in 

wHere wsistle way 

w. Symbols : — w, u, o, nothing at all ; as in 

wear square choir one 

f. Symbols :— f, ff, ph, gh, If, ft, pph, u, fe, ffe ; as in 

Fill PEysic haiiF sappEire SkaiFB 
sUff rouQB. oFTen lieutenant ShorncliFFF, 

Y. Symbols : — v, ve, Ive, f, ph, Iv, sv, zv ; as in 

vest haiiVE nepEew Grosvenor 

twelvB of Beisvoir rendezvous 

th. Symbols : — th, t, h, tth, gh, phth ; as in 

thwj Southampton eighth MaTTEeiu KeiGEley PE.TH.isis 

dh. Symbols : — th, the ; as in 

THW SOOTHE 



§22.] 



The Consonants Illustrated. 



17 



th and dh compared : — 
Initial. 

th 

imef 

Tiling 

TBatch 

TH-m 

Tnick 

TBom 

TBree 

TBrough 

TBWW 



Medial. 

dh 

eiTHer 
faTBer 
moTuer 
norTuern 

WOrTBy 

luiTBer 
furTHer 
wea.TH.er 
feaTBer 



Final. 

dh th dh th 

tbc piTB. wiTB. eTBer 

Tnis paTB. paTBS Attbut 

TBat truTB truTBs noTBing 

TBey oaTB oaTBs auTBor 

TBen mouTB mouTBs earTBy 

TBan breaTB breaTBe piTBy 

tbus sheaTB sheaTBe earTBen 

TBere sootb soothe eTBics 

TBough loaTB loaTBe meTBod 

s. Symbols : — s, ss, se, c, ce, sc, see, sch, sw, st, sth, ps, z, str, 
tsw, sse } tzs, ces, renc, rces, sh ; as in 

seal scene UsTen niisTness (Mrs.) Gloucester 

hiss coalesce isTBmus boaTSwain Cmescester 

pulse scBism vsalm crevasse Worcester 

cell sword quartz briTzska MasBam 
dance 

z. Symbols : — z, zz, ze, s, ss, se, es, c, sc, cz, sh, si, is, x, ds, 
sw ; as in 

zeal scissors discern venison 

puzzle cleanse czar beaux 

furze Wednesday disBonour Winnsor 

his sacrificing business Keswick 

sh. Symbols : — sh, s, ch, ss, c, t, shi, si, ssi, ci, ce, sci, ti, sch, 
che, chsi, psh, sshe ; as in 

SHe assure fasBion social moTion fucBsia 

sugar officiate Asia ocean scBedule PSBaw 

CBaise viTiate mission conscious moustacBe AssBeton 

zh. Symbols : — z, s, zi, si, ssi, ti, g, ge ; as in 

azure glazier abscission routing 

pleasure division transiTion rouGe 



18 English Sounds Illustrated. 

Additional examples : — 



[§§ 23, 24. 



seizure 


treasure 


brasier 


derision 


confusion 


leisure 


osier 


vision 


occasion 


delusion 


measure 


hosier 


decision 


intrusion 


usual 



y. Symbols : — y, i, e, j, I ; as in 

Yet onion hideous halleluiah cotillon 

Also g in the combination gn, pronounced ny ; as in 
viotsette (vinyet) 



h. Symbols : — h, wh, gh, Iquh ; as in 
He who GallaotH.an 



CoLO.UB.OUn 



§ 23. ch. Symbols : — ch, tch, che, t, ti, te, c, jori ; as in 

CBest diTCB. luncBEon question violoncello 
ricB m'cHE nature righTEOus Marjonibanks 

j. Symbols :— j, g, ge, gi, dj, dg, dge, di, ch, gh ; as in 

Jest hinGE dunGEon amount Julge GreenwicB 

Gentle barGE colleoian juD&inent solnier BellinGBam 

Syllabic Consonants. 

§ 24. m\ Symbols: — m ; as in 

baptism criticism. rhythm chasm. 

n\ Symbols : — en, on, in, ain, enn ; as in 

sevEN strengthening button prisoner 

writtEn lengthening bacon reasoning 

open heathenish person seasonable 

V, Symbols : — le, el, al, ul, ael, luale, ual, ell, tie ; as in 

bottLE troubled vessEL sepvLchre victvALs 

appLE settled music al Mich ael levELLing 

riddLE flannEL difficvLt gtmw ale brisTLE 



spasm 



cousin 
BritAin 

halfpEnny 



25.] 



The Long Voivels Illustrated. 



19 



The Long Vowels Illusteated. 

§ 25. a. 

Symbols for a : — a, au, ah, aa, ai, a-e, ar, ear, uar, er, aar, arre. 



SJ?£ 


Aft 


rAther 


tAsk 


repAst 


brAnch 


papA 


lOAft 


ASS 


CAsk 


chAnt 


blAnch 


mammA 


shAft 


PASS 


flAsk 


grAnt 


commAnd 


pAlm 


rAft 


brAss 


rAscal 


plAnt 


demAnd 


bAlm 


(drift 
\drAvght 


grAss 


pAst 


slAnt 


lAvgh 


CAlm 


cIass 


mAst 


dAnce 


Avnt 


psAlm 


crAft 


glAss 


JCASt 

\cAste 


lAnce 


dAvnt 


Alms 


grAft 


gAsp 


chAnce 


JAvnt 


Almond 


After 


rAsp 


fASt 


prAnce 


lAunch 


s Ample 


rAfter 


hAsp 


VASt 


trAnce 


AH 


ex Ample 


sAlve 


grAsp 


lASt 


Answer 


hurrAB. 


CAlf 


hAlve 


clAsp 


blASt 


advAnce 


bAA 


hAlf 


pAth 


Ash 


mAster 


askAnce 


krAAl 


chAff 


OAth 


bAsk 


pAstor 


(stAnch 
\stA\jnch 


plAister 


StAff 


lAth 


mAsk 


aghAst 


ate 


quAff 


fAther 











Observe that in the following examples r is silent. The 
symbol most commonly used to represent a is ar. 



hAnd pABse 


bARb 


mABsh 


gvABd 


CAT&d fATLm 


pAnk 


mAnl 


Ct-ERn/ 


cABt dmn 


lABge 


stAuve 


bazAAns 


pAB,t hAnp 


mAnch 


hEARt 


mAnned 


a in 


unaccented s 


yllables 


• 


trAnsgress 


trAnsform 


/ 


sARcastic 


trAnscend 


Antizan 




nABcotic 


trAnscribe 


Artillery 




contrAst 


trAnslate 


pABtake 




placARd 



20 



English Sounds Illustrated. 
§ 26. oe. 



[§§ 26-28. 



Symbols for oe : — ur, er, ir, or, our, ear, yr, urre, erre, irre, eur, 
olo, rid. 

Observe that in all these examples r is silent. 



txjRn 
hunt 
JiBud 
sERve 



/ram 
dmt 
wond 
woRk 



journey 

EARth 

lEARn 
mYRtle 



pVRREd 

concuRREd 
prefERREd 

ERREtt 



StlRREd 

amatEURs 

colonel 

BRinlington 



oe in unaccented syllables. 

pERverse pERturb advERse 

pERvert fERtility pervERt 

§ 27. e. 
Symbols for e : — a, ai, ea, aa, ae, ao, e-e. 



MAry 

WAry 

vAry 

chAry 

pArent 

rArest 



pAring 

bAring 

dAring 

cAring 

spAring 

stAring 



scAnng 

barbArian 

vegetArian 

grammArian 

gregArious 

Airy 



dAiry 

fAiry 

Airing 

pAiring 

f Air est 

bEArer 



wEArer 

WEAring 

tEAring 

kAron 

AErie 

Aorist 



e unaccented. 
whErEon tlfiErEin 



§ 28. ey. 

Symbols for ey : — a-e, a, ai, ay, ah, ei, ey, ea, eh, ao, au, ag-e 
aig, aigh, eig, eigh, aye, eye, eighe, ait, alf. 



fAtE 


pAin 


thEY 


champAGnE 


plAYEd 


gAtE 


rAin 


obEY 


campAiGn 


obEYEd 


gAlE 


pAY 


grEAt 


StrAIGUt 


survEYEd 


dAlE 


rAY 


brEAk 


fEiGn 


WEIGHEd 


bAker 


dAB.Ua 


EH 


WEIGH 


nEiGHEd 


lAdy 


VEin 


gAol 


EIGHt 


trAiT 


bASS 


VEll 


gAuge 


aye (ever) 


hAiuFpenny 



29, 30.] The Long Vowels Illustrated. 



21 



ey unaccented. 

chkotic namesAke cognAte railwAY survEY (sbst.) 

earthquake wholesale detAil essAY billETdoux 

§ 29. i. 

Symbols for i ; — ee, ea, e-e, e, ei, ie, i, i-e, ce, ce, eo, ey, eye, ui, 
uay, e'e, eh, eig, eigh, egh, aiu, eau, e-y, is. 



/eeI 


cEdar 


chagrin 


Jcey 


sEianory 


/ee£ 


faver 


machine 


kEYEd 


Leigh 


hBAt 


cmling 


fatiguE 


mosquito 


Legb. 


hEAve 


niEce 


Cmsar 


qVAY 


Caius College 


SCEnE 


reliEf 


diarrhea 


E'En 


BEAuchamp 


thErriE 


invalid 


pEOple 


VERicle 


Wemyss 






i unaccented. 






eternal 


create 


rEality 


concrEtE 




Equality 


rEact 


lEgality 


sortiE 




precede 


rEunion 


siesta 


debris 



§ 30. 6. 

Symbols for 6 : — aw, au, a, o, ou, augh, awe, ough, oa, oo, ah, 
at, ag, augha, or, ore, oar, our, ar, arre, oor, aor, oare, 
oure, oore, eor. 



hAwk 


WAlk 


toss 


trough 


broAd 


fAwn 


StAlk 


frost 


augh£ 


flooring 


SAuce 


lA 


cost 


CAUGHtf 


mAnlstick 


pAuse 


broth 


off 


AWE 


bATman 


/All 


cloth 


soft 


fkwEd 


MAGdalen Coll. 


bAll 


loss 


cough 


ough£ 


Faughaw 



Observe that in the following examples r is silent. The 
commonest symbol for 6 is or. 

loud font boABd counse floons pouBEd 

cOBd gowEd hoABd wABn extrAondinary floonEd 

pOBt StOBEd COUnt WABBEd SOAEE<2 GEOBge 



22 



Authority 

Already 

portentoits 



English Sounds Illustrated. [§§ 31, 32. 

6 unaccented. 

downJAll landAu 
import exhortation 

export importation 



'portray 
foretell 
forEsee 



§ 31. ow. 

Symbols for ow: — o-e, o, oa, ow, ou, owe, oe, oo, ew, ewe, ough, 
oh, eau, eo, au, os, aut, ock. 

bo?iB roAd owe sew yEoman 

votE bowl rowEd sEWEd hAuteur 

most growth woe thouGU. apropos 

folk soul foE oh hAUTboy 

goAt mould brooch 6eau CocKburn 

ow unaccented. 

coincidence poetic impost inmost 

§ 32. u. 

Symbols for u : — oo, u, u-e, ou, ue, ew, ewe, o, o-e, ui, eu, ough, 



root 

cool 

truth 

prudent 

rulE 

plumE 



oe, ooe, out, oux, eugh, ougha. 
wound strEWEd fruit 



group 

truE 

Mue 

brEW 

crEW 



brEWEd 

do 

tomb 

movE 

approvE 



bruise 

rhEumatism 

throuGB. 

shoE 

ivoOEd 



surtout 
billetdoux 

BuccIeugb. 
BrouGB.A?n 



u unaccented. 

brutality prudential judicial Gertrude 

For the combination yu, see § 44. 



§§ 33, 34.] The Short Vowels Illustrated. 

The Shoet Vowels Illusteated. 



23 



§ 33. a. 

a is always unaccented. 

Symbols for a : — a, ah, e, eh, o, o-e, u, ou, ough, gh, ia, aa, oi, 



ro, i 


au, oa, ar, er, re, or, 


ur, our, yr, uor, uer, ure, are, 


ere, 


oure, yre, uere, oar, 


, oir, uhar. 




Aloud 


portAble 


tendency 


Europe 


Aside 


mirAcle 


expediency 


Asylum 


mAture 


mentAlly 


NineveB 


vellum 


bAlloon 


verbAlly 


waggon 


syrup 


morAl 


legAcy 


cannon 


stirrup 


merit aI 


lit Any 


wisdom 


enormous 


orgAn 


AscendAncy 


phantom 


glorious 


grAmmariAn 


villA 


idol 


jealousy 


canvAs 


BellA 


carrot 


thorouGB. 


carAt 


AmericA 


bullock 


EdinburQH 


servAnt 


SarAB 


develop 


parliAment 


distAnt 


verandAB. 


testimony 


Isaac 


guidAnce 


barren 


harmony 


tortoise 


balAnce 


moment 


geology 


iBon 


ballAst 


payment 


argosy 


August a 


breakJAst 


violence 


welcome 


meerschAum 


omAment 


experience 


Gladstone 


waistcoAt 


Observe that in the followin 


g examples r is 


. silent. 


slug g And 


understand 


martYBS 


enteBed 


standAftd 


interview 


UquOBs 


rumouBed 


bulwABk 


centred 


conqueBS 


martYBed 


proveBb 


comfort 


measured 


conqueBed 


modeBn 


stubborn 


ventured 


cupboABd 


exeBcise 


Saturday 


beggABed 


avomdupois 


entmitain 


honouBS 


collABed 


UrquKABt 



§ 34. ob. 

03 almost always has an accent, primary or secondary. 



24 



English Sounds Illustrated. 



[§§ 35-37. 



nut 

duck 

dust 



unjust 



son 

money 

come 



Symbols for ce : — u, o, o-e, ou, oo, oe, ow. 

dovE flood 

touch doEs 

rough rowlock 

(B with secondary accent. 

uproot teacup humbug 

03 unaccented. 
hubbub punctility pugnacious ductility ulterior 

§ 35. se. 

Symbols for se : — a, a-e, ua, ai, e, ae. 

mkn bAdE plAid thresh 

hkVE guArantee plkit GaeUc 

se unaccented. 
Alpaca Ambassador compAct (sb.) abstrAct (sb.) 

§ 36. e. 

Symbols for e : — e, ea, a, a-e, u, ai, ei, ie, eo, ue, ay, ey, ce, ave. 

gEt Any SAid leopard says 

md mAny lEisure Geoffrey 

hEAd AtE liEifer guEss 

brEAd bury friEnd guEst 

e unaccented. 
prec&pt stipend sensation 
insect indEx vexation 

§ 37. i. 

Symbols for i ; — i, i-e, y, e, o, u, ie, ee, ui, ai, hi, oa, ive, eo, e-e, 
a-e, ia, ia-e, u-e, ei, ey, ea, eig, ('), ehea, ewi-e, ois, uy, 
oi, igh, ay, ieu. 

hxmn womwz build groAts 

nYmph busY guilt fiYEpence 

prEttY siEve SAint John Theobald 

England brEEchEs Exmbit Tmonmouth 



BEYnard 

f(Etid 

AbergAYEnny 

mEndacity 
pEstiferous 



fit 
bid 
giVE 
Iive 



i§ 38-40.] The Short Vowels Illustrated. 



25 



i unaccented. 

disturb mischmf SAint Paul lettucE forEKEAd 

plentiful BessiE collEgE forfeit housEwifE 

restivB cherriEs courAgE pullEY chamois 

plentY coffEE villAgE donki&Y plagvY 

remain circuit landscApE guinEA Denbmu 

dEceive biscuit miniAture forEion Jervois 

mindEd captAin marriAgE soverEion BothsAY 

churchEs fountAin carriAgE James's BeauliEU 

§ 38. o. 
Symbols for o : — o, a, au, ou, ow, ho, o-e, o-ue. 

hot wAnt fAult hough nonour 

rod saU vauU Gloucester shonE 

WAtch hAlter lAurel knowledge pedagoguE 

unaccented. 
prosperity hostility ostensible prostration 

§ 39. o\ 

o' is always unaccented. 
Symbols for o' : — o, ow, oe, owe, ough, 6t, aoh, olqu. 
omit protect elocution following furlouau 

obey motto invocation follower depoT 

molest hero widow herOEs PharAOB. 

provide heroine follow followEd CoijQuhoun 

§ 40. u. 
Symbols for u : — u, oo, ou, o, or, o-e. 



put 

puss 

push 

bush 

pull 

bull 

full 

pulpit 



bulfinch 

foot 

soot 

good 

wood 

wool 

hood 

stood 



book 

nook 

cook 

shook 

rook 

look 

hook 

brook 



crook 

could 

would 

should 

wolf 

woman 

worsted 

BolingbrokE 



26 



English Sounds Illustrated. 
u unaccented. 



[§§ 41-43. 



/WjH 


manhood 


influential 


wilful 


childhood 


instrument 


painful 


into 


prejudice 


The Diphthongs Illustrated. 






§ 41. ai. 






Symbols for ai : — i, i-e, 


y, y-e, w, ye 


, ig, igh, ighe, eigh, ui, ui-e, 


uy } ai, ey, eye, 








kind trY 


tlE 


SIGH 


guilft 


mind jIy 


dm 


SIGHE^ 


bUY 


fibre CYcle 


dYB 


hEIGHt 


Aisle 


JiZe £y£>e 


SIQ1I 


slmGnt 


BYing 


d\rm stYlB 


tlQRt 


guiding 


EYE 




ai unaccented. 




idea migration 


vivacious 


itinerate 


organization 


irate minute 


quiescent 


identical 


outline 



§ 42. au. 
Symbols for au : — ou, ow, owe, ough, oughe, hou, aou, o, eo. 

house cowl vowBd plouGB. caoutchouc 

doubt now bowsd plouonad compter 
howl how &OUGH Hour Maclnod 

au unaccented. 
however 

§ 43. oi. 

Symbols for oi : — oi, oy, oye, uoi, uoy, uoye, eoi, 

boil boY annoY^d quoit buoY^d 

com toY destroYEd buoY bourgeois 

oi unaccented. 
turmoil envOY 



§§ 44-46] 



r Illustrated. 



27 



§ 44. yu. 

Symbols for yu : — u-e, u, tie, ui, eu, oiu, ew, yu, you, ieu, iew, 
yew, eau, ewe, iewe, hu, uh, ug, ugh, ughe, eo, ueue, 
ua, eve. 



tVUB 


duE 


/ew 


YEW 


impuan 


dukE 


CUE 


pEW 


bEAuty 


Hugh 


musE 


Tuesday 


Yule 


EWE 


Hughes 


USE 


suit 


YOU 


bedwNEd 


JEOd 


unit 


fEud 


Youth 


viEWEd 


gUEUE 


puny 


Eulogy 


llEU 


numour 


mantukmaher 


dual 


man(EUvre ^iew 


buul 


LEYEson-Gower 






yu unaccented. 






unite 


gradual 


absolute 


statuE 




usurp 


tortuous 


resolute 


mildEW 




regular 


valuable 


virtuE 


cuHew 




educate 


tribute 


valuE 


curfEW 



r Illusteated. 
§ 45. r after the Long Vowels and the Diphthongs ea, ia, 6a, ua. 

Examples of words in which r is silent, though written in 
our ordinary spelling, have been given above in the illustrations 
of the vowels a, oe, 6 and a, but the sound of r may be heard 
in all the examples which follow. For illustrations showing 
how different forms of the same word may have r silent or 
sounded, see § 68. 

§46. ar. 

ar final, pronounced a when not followed by a vowel in the 
next word, but written full length. 

are (ar) mar far spar 

par (par) tar czar star 

bar (bar) car jar scar 



28 



English Sounds Illustrated. 



[§§ 47, 48. 

ar final and unaccented. 
memoir (memwar) reservoir (rezaywar) 

ar followed by a vowel. 
starry (stari) marring (maring) 

jarring (jaring) debarring (dibaring) 

§ 47. oer. 

oer final, pronounced oe when not followed by a vowel in the 
next word, but written full length. 

fur (foer) spur her sir purr 

bur (boer) slur prefer fir err 

cur (koer) blur deter stir were 

oer followed by a vowel. 
furry (foeri) stirring (stoering) 

spurring (spoering) erring (oering) 

§ 48. er, ear and ea. 

er. Always followed by a vowel. 

Mary (Meri) fairy (feri) wearing (wering) 

For other examples, see § 27. 

ear final, pronounced ea when not followed by a vowel in the 
next word, but written full length. 

Symbols for ear : — are, air, ear, ere, eir, ayer, ayor, eyre, e'er. 



{pare 
pair 
pear 
(bare 
\bear 
(mare 
[mayor 



(tare 

\tear 

dare 

care 

{ware 
luear 
share 



welfare 



fair (stare 

ure \stair 

rare scare 

yare snare 

(hare (sware 

\hair \swear 

spare square 

ear final unaccented. 

horsehair somewhere 



blare 

glare 

flare 

'air 

ere 

heir 

eyre 



lair 
chair 
where 
(there 
{their 
prayer 
ne'er 



nowhere 



49, 50.] 



r Illustrated. 



29 



ea medial, the sound of r following it having disappeared. 
Symbols for ea : — are, air, ear, ere, eir, ayer, ayor, ar, aire. 



cares (keaz) 
stairs (steaz) 
pears (peaz) 



wherefore (wheafor) 
theirs (dheaz) 
prayers (preaz) 

§ 49. eyar and eya. 



mayors (meaz) 
scarce (skeas) 
aired (ead) 



Very rare. Exx. : — 

layer (leyar) 
player (pleyar) 



layers (leyaz) 
players (pleyaz) 



§ 50. iar. 

The combination ir does not exist in our language, the 
long vowel i being always changed into the diphthong ia by r 
following. 

iar final, pronounced ia when not followed by a vowel in the 
next word, but written full length. 



(peer 
[pier 



{beer 
bier 
{deer 
dear 



veer 

{sear 
seer 
sere 
(sheer 
\shear 



compeer 



rear 


blear 


drear 


clear 


(hear 


mere 


[here 


sphere 


spear 


(we're 


smear 


\weir 



leer queer 

cheer (tear 

jeer [tier 

freer near 

steer gear 

sneer fear 

iar final unaccented. 

reindeer headgear 

iar followed by a vowel. 
cheery cheering hearing hearer dearest 
weary steering clearing clearer merest 

ia medial — no sound of r following. Note that in a few cases 
r is not written in our ordinary spelling. 

Symbols for ia : — eer, ear, ere, ier, eir, eere, eare, ea, eu. 
peers beard tiers veered real theatre 

cheers spheres weird feared ideal museum 



30 English Sounds Illustrated [§§ 51, 52. 

ia unaccented. 
compeers greybeard 

ia final. 
idea panacea 

§ 51. or, oar and 6a. 

or final. Rare. Pronounced 6 when not followed by a vowel 
in the next word, but written full length. Exx. : — 

or nor for your 

or final unaccented. 
therefore lessor vendor guarantor 

or followed by a vowel. 
story chorus boring soaring pouring 

glory porous storing roaring flooring 

6ar final, pronounced 6a when not followed by a vowel in the 
next word, but written full length. 

Symbols for oar : — ore, oar, our, oor, uor, or, oer, awer. 



ore 


core 


shore 


store 


roar 


floor 


pore 


gore 


lore 


swore 


hoar 


fluor 


bore 


wore 


yore 


oar 


pour 


corps 


more 


fore 


score 


boar 


four 


o'er 


tore 


sore 


snore 


soar 


door 


drawer 



6a final occurs in 
Noah boa 

6ar medial does not occur in my pronunciation. 

§ 52. owar and owa. 
Very rare. Exx. : — 

lower (lowar) loivering (lowaring) 

rower (rowar) lowers (lowaz) 

mower (mowar) lowered (lowad) 



§§ 53, 54] 



r Illustrated. 



31 



§ 53. uar and ua. 

The combination ur never occurs in English, the long 
vowel u being always changed into the diphthong ua by r 
following. 

uar final, pronounced ua when not followed by a vowel in the 
next word, but written full length. 
poor sure truer doer 

moor tour brewer wooer 

uar followed by a vowel. 

poorest tourist boorish assuring 

surest touring mooring pleurisy 

ua medial — no sound of r following. Notice that in a few 
cases r is not written in our ordinary spelling. 

Symbols for ua : — oor, we, our, ewer, oer, over, oore, ue, ua. 
boors assured brewers wooers fluent 

moors gourd doers moored truant 



r after the Short Vowels. 

§ 54. ar. 

ar is always unaccented. 

ar final, pronounced a when not followed by a vowel in the 
next word, but written full length. 



beggAB, 

Coll&R 

grammKR 
cell&R 



ABound 

Anight 

ARRest 

bABonial 

pARental 



sell'EB, 
bakBB 
runnEB 
readi&B 



centBB 
metBE 
sailoB 
tailoB 



leisvBB 
measvBE 
honovB 
labovB 



ar followed by a vowel. 



mABine 

nABBate 

UbrABy 

contrABy 

solitABy 



mystBBy 

gall^By 

gem&Bous 

intEBBupt 

histOBy 



martYB 
conqvEB 
UqvOB 
CheshiBB 



inventOBy 

suBBound 

sxjBBender 

injuBy 

armouBy 



32 



English Sounds Illustrated. 



[§§ 55, 56. 



55. 



cer. 


ser. 


er. 


it. 


Merry 


marry merry 


miracle 


curry 


tarry 


error 


irritate 


currant 


carry 


peril 


myriad 


worry 


carroi 


l > unaccented. 


unaccented. 


nourish 




perennial 


irascible 
irrational 

miraculous 
Erection 


or. 




o'r. 


ur. 


sorry 




unaccented. 


courier 


horrid 




voracious 


unaccented. 


forehead 




adoration 


adjuration 


majority 




aborigines 


hurrah 


quarry 









r final never occurs after any short vowel except a. 



r after the Triphthongs aia, aua, oia, yua, and the Diphthongs 

ai, yu. 

§ 56. aiar, aia and air. 

In all the following examples r final is silent unless followed 
by a vowel in the next word, but it is written in every case. 

aiar final. 

fire tire pyre buyer 

mire wire higher liar 

hire lyre crier friar 

aiar followed by a vowel. 
miry fiery tiring hiring 

aia followed by a consonant. No sound of r. 
tired hired fires buyers trial denial 



briar 
prior 
choir 



§§ 57-59.] -r Illustrated. 33 

air only in unaccented syllables. Eare. 
mate monical 

§ 57. auar and aua. 
auar final. 
our f flour tower shower 

sour \ flower power plougher 

auar followed by a vowel. 
sourest flowering towering 

floury showery overpowering 

aua followed by a consonant. No sound of r. 
hours towers soured flowered allowance 

§ 58. oyar and oya. 

These are very rare. 
oyar final. 
destroyer employer _ 

oya before a consonant. No sound of r. 

destroyers employers loyal 

§ 59. yuar, yua and yur. 

yuar final. 

pure lure cure ewer sewer fewer 

yiiar followed by a vowel. 

purest luring curing enduring 

yua followed by a consonant. No sound of r. 

lured cured cures sewers dual 

yur only in unaccented syllables. Eare. 

dvnation penwRy 



Ill 

ENGLISH ANALYSIS. 
The Consonants. 

§ 60. It is convenient to begin with the study of the con- 
sonants, because they are more easily described and classified 
than the vowels. 

Consonants are formed by stopping or squeezing the breath 
after it has left the larynx, except in the case of the sound h, 
and the glottal stop, used in German. These are formed by 
squeezing or stopping the breath in the larynx itself. 

There is no sharp line of demarcation between consonants 
and vowels. 

The English consonants are twenty-three in number, besides 
the two composite consonants ch and j. So as our alphabet 
does not furnish a symbol for each of them, we employ the six 
digraphs ng, wh, th, dh, sh and zh, each of which combina- 
tions represents a single sound, unless the letters are separated 
by a hyphen. The hyphen is used in such words as engage, 
out-house, mishap (in-geyj, aut-haus, mis-haep), and the like, 
to indicate that each letter is to be sounded separately. 

§ 61. Names of the Consonants. It is necessary in study- 
ing the consonants, to practise sounding them alone, without 
any vowel ; but in class teaching, and whenever we speak of 
the consonants, we want some names that are distinctly audible. 
So they should be called pa, ba, and so on, as in the words 
parental, balloon, the following vowel being sounded as gently 
as possible, 

(34) 



§§ 62-64.] The Stops. 35 

One of the names will be found difficult, and will require a 
little practice, namely nga, for in English ng is never met with 
at the beginning of a word or syllable, though it occurs at the 
beginning of words in other languages, as for instance in the 
names of certain places in New Zealand. 

Imitate -nger, the conclusion of the word singer, taking care 
not to pronounce the double sound ngg, as in finger, which is 
written phonetically Ungear. 

§ 62. The Consonants classified. Stops and Continuants. 
(Eefer to the table on p. xiv.) It has been stated above that in 
forming consonants the breath is stopped or squeezed, and the 
difference between stopping and squeezing the breath is very 
obvious when we compare the six stops, p, b, t, d, k, g, with 
any of the continuants, for instance with s and sh. We can 
prolong s and sh as long as we please, for the passage through 
the mouth is not completely closed, and the breath issues from 
it all the while ; but in forming the six stops it is entirely 
closed, and opened again with an explosion. So they are 
sometimes called shut or explosive consonants, whilst such 
consonants as s and sh are called continuants. 

The Stops. 

§ 63. Lip, Point and Back Consonants. The six stops 
may be classified according to the place where the breath is 
stopped. In the lip stops p and b it is stopped by closing the 
lips, in the point stops t and d, by the point of the tongue touch- 
ing the upper gums, and in the back stops k and g, by the back 
of the tongue touching the soft palate. These three classes of 
consonants are sometimes called labial, dental and guttural. 

§ 64. Breath and Voiced Consonants. The consonants 
p, t and k are called hard, whilst b, d and g are called soft, 
because in p, t and k there is a more forcible explosion of the 
breath. But this is not the most important point of difference 
between these two classes of consonants. The essential differ- 



36 English Analysis. [§ 64. 

ence can be more easily appreciated if we study some of the 
open consonants or continuants. Take for instance s or z and 
prolong them. The sound of s, or hissing, is evidently formed 
by the breath in the mouth. But in the prolonged z, or buzzing, 
a faint sound of voice, formed in the larynx, is distinctly heard 
at the same time. And the same thing may be very well ob- 
served in prolonging f and y. Also if f be suddenly stopped 
there is silence, but on stopping y we clearly hear a vowel 
sound like the er in heaver or a in variety. Again, if we try 
to prolong b, a faint sound is heard ; but if we attempt to pro- 
long p, there is no sound whatever till the lips part with a 
sudden explosion. 

But perhaps the most convincing experiment of all is to pro- 
long z or y, or any one of the soft continuants, whilst the ears 
are stopped. The buzzing sound formed in the larynx will then 
be heard very clearly indeed, as a loud noise, whilst it is alto- 
gether absent in the corresponding hard consonants, s and f. 

The essential difference between the hard and soft con- 
sonants is, therefore, that the hard consonants are simply 
formed by the breath, whilst in the soft consonants there is 
a faint sound of voice. They are midway between the con- 
sonants and the vowels. And although the names hard and 
soft sound best, and are most convenient for general use, the 
two classes are more accurately described as breathed or voice- 
less and voiced consonants. 

It is of great importance to realise very distinctly the 
difference between voiced and voiceless consonants, for it at 
once furnishes a key to several sounds which do not exist in 
English, e.g., to the German ch in ich, which is a voiceless y, 
to the French voiceless I and r, and even to the terrible Welsh 
II, which is only a voiceless I, and presents no difficulty to those 
who have learnt this secret. 

To sum up, we may distinguish the six stops as follows : — 

1. The hard lip stop, p. 

2. The soft „ „ b. 



§§ 65, 66.] The. Liquids. 37 

3. The hard point stop, t. 

4. The soft „ „ d. 

5. The hard back ,, k. 

6. The soft „ „ g. 

The Liquids. 

§ 65. The Nasal Consonants. We have in English three 
nasal consonants, the lip nasal m, the point nasal n, and the 
back nasal ng. They resemble the stops in having the mouth 
aperture completely closed, and correspond exactly with the 
lip, point, and back stops respectively as to the place of closure. 
Like the soft stops b, d and g, they are voiced. 

There is only this difference between them and the soft 
stops, that the passage through the nose is left open, the soft 
palate being lowered so as to allow the breath to pass up 
behind it and escape through the nostrils. It is therefore 
possible to prolong them. A cold in the head, by stopping up 
the nose passage, makes it difficult to pronounce the nasals, so 
that we are apt to substitute for them the corresponding soft 
stops b, d and g. 

§ 66. The Back Nasal ng and the Symbol ng in Ordinary 
Spelling. To prevent confusion between the back nasal ng in 
sing, singer, and the symbol ng, which in ordinary spelling has 
various uses, it will be well to refer to the exx. of n used for 
ng in § 20, and to observe that in ordinary spelling nh always 
has the value ngk, whilst ng has four different values, namely 
ng, ngg, n-g and nj. Examples : — 



\k = ngk 


ng = ng 


ng = ngg 


ng = n-g 


ng = nj 


ink 


sing 


finger 


engage 


strange 


sink 


singer 


anger 


engrave 


hinge 


think 


singing 


hunger 


ungraceful 


lounging 


thank 


hang 


longest 


penguin 


danger 


tinker 


hanging 


angry 




plunging 


monkey 


long 


anguish 




congestion 


donkey 


longing 


langihage 




ungenerous 



38 English Analysis. [§§ 67, 68. 

§ 67. The Side Consonant 1 is generally formed by closing 
the breath passage in the centre with the point of the tongue 
against the upper gums, and letting the breath escape at the 
two sides, so that the stream of breath is divided, and it is often 
called a divided consonant. But some persons, myself among 
the number, let the breath escape on one side only, so it seems 
better to call it a lateral or side consonant. 

The English 1 is voiced, but voiceless 1 occurs in French 
and in Welsh. 

§ 68. The Trilled Consonant r. The letter r will be dis- 
cussed in connection with the vowels (see §§ 106-114), but two 
important points concerning it must be noticed here by antici- 
pation. 

(1) In many words, which in our ordinary spelling are 
written with r, we hear a vowel sound, like the a in attend, 
villa, which must not be mistaken for the consonant r. This 
is clearly heard in boor, near, fire, our, which may be compared 
with boot, neat, fight, out. 

(2) The consonant r is never heard unless a vowel follows 
in the same or in the next word. So r is sounded in rat, tree, 
merry, sorry, poor old man, dear Annie, never ending, far off, 
but silent in poor child, dear me, never mind, far distant. 

English r, like the point continuants, is formed with the 
point of the tongue against the roots of the teeth. The action 
of the tongue in forming it may be understood by observing 
how it is possible, by blowing on the lips, as babies sometimes 
do, to make them vibrate, so that the breath passage is alter- 
nately open and shut. This is a trill on the lips. The point 
of the tongue can be made to vibrate in like manner, which 
produces a prolonged r, and the uvula also can be trilled, this 
being the way in which r is pronounced by the Parisians, and 
in many parts of France and Germany. 

It has been asserted that English r is not a trill, but a 
simple continuant. Certainly in pronouncing it we do not 
repeatedly open and close the breath passage, but I think it 



§§ 69-71] The Continuants. 39 

may safely be affirmed that it is blown open just once, there 
being the same sort of flapping movement as in a prolonged 
trill, but not repeated. For English children who find it diffi- 
cult to pronounce r can learn to do so by practising first a 
prolonged trill with the point of the tongue ; so the name trill 
does not seem unsuitable. 

English r is voiced, but voiceless r occurs in French. 

§ 69. The Liquids. The nasals m, n and ng, with 1 and r, 
are commonly called liquids, and it is convenient to retain this 
name and to regard them as one group, intermediate between 
the stops on the one hand, and the continuants on the other, for 
they have two characteristics in common. (1) They partially 
obstruct the breath passage, not closing it entirely like the 
stops, nor leaving a free channel for it through the mouth, 
like the continuants. And (2) they combine very readily with 
other consonants. 

The Continuants. 

§ 70. We have observed that, in the English stops and 
liquids, the place of closure in the mouth is either the lips, 
the point of the tongue against the upper gums or the back 
of the tongue against the soft palate. But the English con- 
tinuants are formed in six different places. Beginning, as 
before, with those which are formed by the lips, and arranging 
them in order according to the place of formation, we have six 
classes of continuants, namely, lip, lip-teeth, point-teeth, point, 
front and throat continuants. 

We have no back continuants in English, but they exist in 
German, the hard back continuant being heard in acH and the 
corresponding soft sound in Waaen. 

§ 71. The Lip Continuants wh and w. These sounds 
differ from one another simply in that wh is hard or breathed, 
whilst w is soft or voiced. The sound wh occurs only at the 
beginning of words, and many persons — most Southerners 
indeed — never use this sound, but substitute for it the voiced 



40 English Analysis. [§§ 72, 73. 

consonant w. They pronounce when like wen, whale like wail, 
and so on. But those who generally omit this sound may 
sometimes be heard to utter it in an emphatic "where?" 

wh and w are not simple lip continuants. We meet with 
these in German Quelle and south German Wesew. In the 
English wh and w the lips and tongue take the same position 
as in the back-round vowel u (oo in pool), that is to say, the 
lips are rounded, not opened as a slit, but with the corners 
drawn together, and the back of the tongue is raised towards 
the soft palate. So they may be called back-round continuants. 
See §§ 86, 87. 

In ordinary spelling it is the rule to use u for the sound w after q and 
g. Exx. of u pronounced as w : — quench, quick, queen, anguish, language, 
persuade. 

The reason why qu stands for kw is that it is borrowed from Latin, 
and u is the Latin symbol for w. So Lat. uinum became Eng. wins. 

§ 72. The Lip-Teeth Continuants f and y. These form a 
pair of hard and soft consonants. Both are produced by press- 
ing the lower lip against the upper teeth, so that the stream of 
breath passes between the teeth. 

§ 73. The Point-Teeth Continuants th and dh. Eefer 
to the examples given in § 22. These sounds are formed by 
placing the point of the tongue against the edges of the upper 
teeth, so that the breath passes between the teeth, as it does in 
X and Y. The difficulty which foreigners and young children 
often find in producing these sounds may be overcome by 
observing their mechanism, which is really very simple. It is, 
however, generally very difficult for the ear to distinguish 
sounds which have not been acquired in infancy or childhood, 
so that these sounds are liable to be mistaken for f and y, or s 
and z, by foreigners who have not been carefully taught, even 
after a long residence in England ; and the same mistakes are 
often made by young English children. 

The distinction between the hard or breathed th in Tnistle, 
eTB.er, sheaTH, and the soft or voiced dh in this, eiTB.er, s/zeaTHE, 



§§ 74, 75.] The Continuants. 41 

is just the same as the difference between f and y or any other 
pair of hard and soft consonants, though the fact may be over- 
looked, as we use the same symbol th for them both. 

There are many instances in which we end a noun with th, 
and the corresponding verb with dh, whilst the plural noun 
ends in dhz, just as f is changed into y in similar cases. 
Examples : — 



f 


Y 


YZ 


thief 


thieve 


thieves 


shelf 


shelve 


shelves 


th 


dh 


dhz 


wreath 


wreathe 


wreaths 


bath 


bathe 


baths 



§ 74. The Point Continuants s and z. These are formed 
by placing the point of the tongue close to the upper gums ; 
but they differ from t and d, in that the tongue does not quite 
touch the gums. A little channel is left for the breath, s is 
the most clearly audible of all the consonants, and can be 
distinctly heard without any vowel, as in hissing, or in the 
French and German pst. 

The only difference between s and z is that z is voiced and 
S is not. Our frequent use of the symbol s for the sound z is 
confusing, and obscures the fact that we have two different 
plural terminations where to the eye there is but one, e.g., in 
cats, s, and in dogs, z. See further in § 118. 

§ 75. The Point-Blade Continuants sh and zh. The 
formation of sh, and of the corresponding voiced consonant zh, 
is very differently explained by different writers. If I had 
regard to English only, I should venture to call them Blade 
Continuants, as being formed not only with the point of the 
tongue, but with the blade as well, but they seem to be 
differently formed in different languages. 1 The blade is the 

1 They are called Point-Blade Continuants in the present edition. 
Miss Soames called them Point Continuants, just as s and z. — Ed. 



42 English Analysis. [§76. 

part of the tongue immediately behind the point. In forming 
them I myself, and I believe English people generally, raise 
the blade as well as the point, and draw the tongue a little 
further back than for s and z. 

S, z, sh and zh are commonly called sibilants, on account of 
their hissing sound. Observe that zh is the same as French j 
in je. 

It seems pretty clear that English people in general form sh and zh 
as I do, with the blade of the tongue, so that they are further back than s 
or z, because when the point-sounds s or z are followed by the sounds i or 
y, formed with the middle of the tongue, the s or z is transformed into 
sh or zh, and the i or y frequently disappears. In such cases there is 
evidently a compromise, and the tongue has unconsciously taken an 
intermediate position, between that for s or z on the one hand and i and 
y on the other. 

We have examples of this change in common endings -sion and -cial, 
for the endings of such words as mission, vision, social are pronounced 
-shan, -zhan and -shal. 

The sound zh was noticed in English as far back as the year 1688 
(Sweet, Hist, of English Sounds, p. 267), and Prof. Skeat says that in 
pleasure and leisure it is still older. 

§ 76. The Yoiced Front Continuant y. We form y by 
raising the middle, technically called the front, of the tongue, 
and bringing it near the hard palate. The tongue is in fact for 
a moment in the same position as for the vowel i. In some 
words the distinction between y and the short vowel i is not 
very clearly marked. 

There are many common endings, such as -ion, -ious, in 
which i is sometimes silent, or it may be pronounced as y or 
as i. After r, it is generally pronounced as i. Exx. : — 

Silent i i = y i = i 

gracious bilious victorious 

motion onion criterion 

judicial labial material 

The corresponding hard or breathed consonant, which is similar to 
the German "ich" sound, is said to be heard occasionally in such English 
words as hue, human and pure (hyit, hyuman, pytiar). 



§§ 77-79.] The Continuants. 43 

§ 77. The Throat Continuant h. 1 Some persons do not 
reckon h, or the glottal stop ('), as consonants, because they 
are not formed in the superglottal passages, but in the glottis 
itself, that is, in the opening between the vocal chords. But 
they do not seem to differ essentially from the other con- 
sonants, h being formed by squeezing the breath in the glottis, 
and (') by stopping it there, just as the other consonants are 
formed by squeezing or stopping it after it has left the larynx. 

The opening of the glottis for the formation of h is shown 
in diagram IV. 2 on p. xxvii. 

§ 78. The Composite Consonants ch and j. It is not 
difficult to hear that each of these is composed of two sounds — 
that ch = t + sh and j = d + zh. Dr. Murray calls them 
consonantal diphthongs. In the phonograph the succession of 
sounds can be reversed, so that ch is heard as sh + t. 

In ordinary spelling we sometimes symbolise the first part 
of these composite consonants correctly, using tch for ch and 
dg or dge for j, as in /ctch, juDQment, eDGE, and we never use 
j at the end of a word, either ge or dge being put for it, as in 
chanGE, hinGB, Wdge, Iobgb. 

It sometimes happens that t and sh come together in places 
where each sound belongs to a separate syllable, as in nutshell. 
In such cases we write tsh — not ncechel but ncatshel. 

It is interesting to observe that the period when words spelt with ch 
were derived from the French may be determined by their pronunciation. 
Those borrowed at an early period are pronounced ch, as chine (spine), 
rich, but the later ones retain the French pronunciation sh, like machine. 

§ 79. Syllabic Consonants. The consonants m, n and 1 
are often so prolonged as to form a distinct syllable, as in 
schism, open, bottle (sizm', owpn', botl'), and they may then 
be called vocal or syllabic, m, n and 1 are always syllabic 
when they occur at the end of a word, preceded by a consonant, 
as in the exx. given above, or between two consonants, as in 

1 Called Glottal Continuant in the former edition. — Ed. 



44 English Analysis. [§ 80. 

owpn'd, botl'd. They are seldom syllabic in any other case, 
but in a few instances syllabic n is followed by a vowel, as in 
strengthening, prisoner (strengthn'ing, prizn'ar). 

The Vowels. 

§ 80. Vowels are voice-sounds modified by giving some 
definite shape to the passages above the glottis, but without 
audible friction. The breath is not stopped or squeezed as in 
forming a consonant, but the line of demarcation between 
vowels and consonants is not very clearly marked. 

The vowels will be found to present much more serious 
difficulties than the consonants, for several reasons. First, 
because the English vowels are not always easy to distinguish, 
but shade off imperceptibly into one another in many cases. 
Secondly, because our alphabet, originally intended for a lan- 
guage with a much simpler vowel system, is quite inadequate 
to represent the numerous vowel-sounds of the English lan- 
guage. And lastly, because the five characters we have, and 
the digraphs formed by combining them, are used in such a 
haphazard manner that hardly any of them can be recognised 
as certainly intended to represent any particular sound. 

We may observe, for instance, that a is used for nine 
different sounds, as in father, fat, fate, fare, fall, want, any, 
villa, village, and that there are no less than twenty-one 
different symbols for the sound ey in fate, namely, a-e, a, ai, 
ay, aye, ah, ag-e, aig, aigh, ait, alf, ao, au, ei, ey, ea, eh, eye, 
eig, eigh, eighe, as in fate, lady, fail, may, played, dahlia, 
champagne, campaign, straight, trait, halfpenny, gaol, gauge, 
vein, they, break, eh, obeyed, reign, weigh, weighed, and nearly 
as many for u in pool ; see § 32. 

The number of vowels and diphthongs for which Dr. Murray 
has provided symbols in the Oxford Dictionary, exclusive of 
those borrowed from French and German and not yet natural- 
ised, is fifty-two ; but for an elementary course of lessons on 
phonetics it seems sufficient to use twenty-four. The English 



§§ 81-83.] The Five Principal Vowels. 45 

vowels are peculiarly difficult to master, the French and German 
vowel systems being much more simple ; but students who 
proceed at once to these without first learning to distinguish 
accurately the sounds of their mother tongue, will in all pro- 
bability introduce the English vowels unawares into their 
French and German, and are not likely to acquire a correct 
pronunciation of these or of any other foreign languages. 

§ 81. New Symbols for the Yowels, It is obvious, from 
what has been already stated, that to represent twenty-four 
vowels and diphthongs a number of new symbols must be 
employed, and that students must be careful to observe the 
value of these symbols, and to remember that the same symbol 
always stands for the same sound. 

Before attempting to classify the vowels, or to study them 
in detail, the keywords on p. xv. should be learnt by heart, and 
then the names of the vowels themselves, as this is the easiest 
way of committing them to memory. The vowels are copiously 
illustrated in §§ 25-44. 

§ 82. Pronunciation of §. One name, that of e in fairy 
(feri), will be found difficult to pronounce, for we are always 
accustomed to follow it with the sound r, as in fairy, or a as in 
fair, air, where the last sound is like a in villa. Try to pro- 
nounce air without this final a, and to keep the e pure and 
unchanged. This is a useful exercise, because the sound 
required is practically the same as the French e or e in meme, 
zele, etc. 

The Five Peincipal Vowels. 

§ 83. The best key to the classification of the vowels is the 
mastery of the five principal ones, namely, a, ey, i, ow, ii, as 
in father, fate, feet, pole, pool (fadhar, feyt, fit, powl, pul). 
These are approximately the sounds given to a, e, i, o, u in 
German, Italian, and most continental languages, so that it 
seems appropriate to use digraphs beginning with a, e, i, o, u, 
to represent them. 



46 English Analysis. [§§ 84, 85. 

We may observe also that these five sounds are represented 
in the continental fashion in some English words, e.g., in father, 
obey, machine, pole, rule, and that we meet with ey in they, grey, 
obey, and ow in a great many words, such as bowl, flow, grow. 

It may be useful to remember that the symbols used for a, 
ey, i, OW, ii, by the Indian Government and the Church 
Missionary Society, in geographical names and native names 
in general, are a, e, i, 6, 4. 

This diagram shows the position of the tongue in forming 
the five principal vowels. 



,^e- 



So^!^--- 



Tongue 

§ 84. a in father. When we sound a in father the tongue 
is lowered, and the mouth passage is wide open, so it is called 
an open vowel; and it is reckoned one of the bach vowels, 
although the back of the tongue is not raised in forming it. 
Dr. Jespersen, in his Articulations of Speech Sounds, observes 
that it is rightly called a back vowel, because, although the 
back of the tongue is not absolutely as high as the middle, it is 
at the back that the tongue is nearest to the palate, so that this 
is the place of greatest friction, and the vowel should be named 
accordingly. It is sometimes called the Italian a, and it is a 
favourite sound with singers. The symbol most commonly 
used for it in English is ar, as in hard, cart, etc. See § 25. 

§ 85. ey in fate and i in feet. It is very obvious that 



§ 86.] The Five Principal Vowels. 47 

when we pass from a to i we raise the lower jaw considerably. 
But the sound can be produced without thus closing the jaws ; 
and if by an effort we keep down the lower jaw, we can see that 
the tongue rises and approaches very near to the hard palate. 
It is the so-called front of the tongue which rises most, that is, 
the part just in front of the centre, so i is called a front vowel. 
And in forming ey the jaw and the same part of the tongue are 
raised, but not quite to the same extent; so ey likewise is 
called a front vowel, and distinguished from i as being half- 
closed, whilst i is said to be closed. 

ey and i are sometimes called palatal vowels, and this name 
may serve to remind us of their relation to the palatal con- 
sonant y, which is formed by placing the tongue in the same 
position as for the vowel i. 

§ 86. ow in pole and u in pool. The most obvious fact 
when we pass from a to u is that the lips are contracted and 
the corners of the mouth drawn towards one another, so that 
it approaches the form of a circle, and that at the same time 
the lower jaw is raised. This movement of the lips is called 
rounding, and u is said to be a round vowel, ow is formed in 
the same way, but the lips are not so much contracted, and the 
jaw not so much raised. It is intermediate between a and u, 
and is called half-closed, whilst u is said to be closed. 

But another movement takes place in forming ow and u, 
which is not so obvious as the process of rounding. Ventrilo- 
quists can produce ow and ii tolerably well without moving 
their lips at all, and there are some few lazy people who always 
pronounce them in this fashion ; but whether the lips are 
rounded or not, the back part of the tongue is always raised in 
forming these vowels and brought near the soft palate for u, 
and not quite so near for ow, as shown in the diagram. They 
are therefore called back-round vowels. 

The consonants wh and w are related to u, as y is to i, 
being formed by placing the lips and tongue in the same 
position as for u. 



48 English Analysis. [§§ 87, 88. 

Observe how the five principal vowels, a, ey, i, ow and u, 

are placed and named in the scheme on p. xxii. That scheme 
does not pretend to scientific accuracy, but it seems to be the 
most convenient way of exhibiting the vowels in a tabular form. 

§ 87. ey and ow are not Pure Vowels, ey and ow are so 
far from being pure vowels that they might be classed with the 
diphthongs. But they are the best representatives we have of 
the close e and o of French, German and Italian, and it is con- 
venient to find a place for them amongst the vowels. 

The best way to convince oneself that ey in fate becomes 
gradually closer, and ends in a sound approaching to i, whilst 
ow closes up and ends in a sound which is almost u, is to 
observe how they are pronounced in singing by untrained 
singers. Such persons will be heard to pass rapidly to the 
close i or u sound, and to prolong it, producing a very dis- 
agreeable effect. But a well-taught singer will hold the first 
and more open sound as long as possible, changing it just at 
the end of the note, and will be careful, in singing French, 
German or Italian, to keep the vowel quite pure and unaltered 
throughout. 

It is important for all students of French and German to 
recognise the diphthongal character of ey and ow, for if they 
fail to do so, they will not succeed in pronouncing the close e 
and o of those languages, which must be kept pure to the end. 

It is said that %, i and u are diphthongal also, and that the only long 
vowel in English which is kept unaltered to the end is oe in bum. But 
it seems to me that in the best southern English a is not a diphthong, 
and that the change at the end of i and u is not obvious unless they are 
followed by a vowel, as in seeing, doing (siying, duwing), when they 
certainly become closer at the end, and conclude with the sounds y and 
W respectively. 

§ 88. e in fairy and 6 in Paul. In our ordinary spelling e 
is always represented by some vowel or vowels followed by r, 
most frequently by a or ai, as in Mary, fairy, and the com- 
monest symbol for 6 is or, as in port, com, horse, lord. See 



§ 89.] The Five Principal Vowels. 49 

exx. of e and 6 in §§ 27, 30. As already observed, we must, 
in studying e, learn to pronounce it without adding that sound 
of a in villa which is heard after it in care, pair, wear, and, 
indeed, wherever the r is not followed by a vowel and trilled, 
as it is in Mary. 

e and 6 differ from ey and ow respectively in being more 
open. In both cases the jaw and tongue are lowered, and in 
the case of 6 the lips are less contracted, e may be called a 
half-open vowel. It is practically the same as the French open 
e in pres, zele, etc. 6, on the other hand, is an abnormal vowel, 
having nothing corresponding to it in French or German, though 
it is often supposed to be the same as French o in homme. It 
is, in fact, not only more open than o in homme, but has the 
tongue even lower than for a in father, so it must undoubtedly 
be reckoned as an open vowel. 

We may regard the front vowels e, ey, i, and the back- 
round vowels 6, ow, ii, as forming two corresponding series of 
sounds, but with this irregularity, that 6 is much more open than 
e. Observe the position of e, ey, i, and 6, ow, ii, in the scheme 
on p. xxii., and compare with the French vowels on p. xxiii. 

It would appear that one reason why the Bell-Ellis- Sweet vowel 
scheme differs so much from those adopted by foreign phoneticians, is 
that in English the abnormally open vowel 6 in Paul is more open than 
& in father. For in the Bell scheme a is placed half-way between the 
open and the shut vowels, instead of being reckoned an open vowel, as 
it is by phoneticians in general. And it is not surprising that no one 
starting from a French or German basis has placed & so high, seeing that 
in those languages there is no back-round vowel which has the tongue 
lower than &, 

§ 89. oe in burn. This vowel, like e, is always represented 

by some vowel followed by r. It has no particular symbol 

belonging to it, but is written er, ir, or, ur, as in herd, bird, 

word, turn, and in various other ways. See the exx. in § 26. 

As the tongue is in a position intermediate between that for a 

front or a back vowel, it is called a mixed vowel, and it is 

4 



50 



English Analysis. 



[§§ 90, 91. 



accordingly placed between the front and back vowels in the 
scheme on p. xxii. Like e it is half open. We do not meet 
with it in French or German. 



The Short Vowels. 

§ 90. Six Short Accented Yowels. It will be convenient 
to begin with the consideration of the short vowels in accented 
syllables, because there is great uncertainty about unaccented 
vowels, whilst the accented ones are clear and well defined. 

We meet with six short vowels in unaccented syllables, 
namely oe, se, e, i, o, u, as in putty, pat, pet, pit, pot, put. 
These six accented vowels are always close or stopped, i.e., 
followed by a consonant in the same syllable, and as it is not 
easy to pronounce them alone, it is convenient to give them the 
names cet, set, et, it, ot, ut. 

It is noticeable that we do not meet with any one of these 
short vowels in the French language, and that three of them, 
namely oe, se, 0, do not occur in German either. Observe also 
that each of the vowels se and o is more open than any sound 
of its own class, either in French or German. 

§ 91. Long and Short Yowels Compared. It is instructive 
to compare each of these short vowels with the long vowel most 
nearly corresponding to it, as in the following exx. : — 

oe and ce in boen and been. 



A. 


, ee , 


, Meri , 


, mseri. 


ey , 


, e , 


, geyt , 


, get. 


i , 


, i , 


, fit 


, fit. 


6 , 


, o , 


. Pol , 


, Poli. 


u , 


, u , 


, pul 


, pul. 



If each of these six short vowels is prolonged, care being 
taken not to alter its character in any way, it will be found 
that every one of them differs more or less in formation and 
sound from the corresponding long vowel. This is not the 
case in French, where precisely the same sound may be long 



§ 92.] The Short Voivels. 51 

or short, and nearly all the vowels may be lengthened or 
shortened without altering their quality, as is shown in the 
table of French vowels on p. xxiii. In German there is usually a 
difference between long and short vowels, as in English, but it 
is not necessary to make any difference except that of length 
between the long vowels in Ikhm and mlhen and the short 
ones in LAmm and Winner respectively. The nature of the 
difference between the long and short vowels can be more 
conveniently discussed after we have examined each short 
vowel separately. 

§ 92. The Short Front Yowels — 83 in pat. Note that the 
symbol for this vowel can easily be written without lifting the 
pen, and made quite distinct from 03, if the first part is made 
like a reversed e. 

It is a common mistake to suppose that 88 is the short 
vowel corresponding to a in father. In point of fact it is a 
front vowel, like e in fairy, but more open. It is not found in 
French or German. The German a in Mann and French a in 
patte differ from it and from one another. The short vowel 
which corresponds with a in father is German a in Mann. 

e in net may be called a half-open vowel, being decidedly 
more open than ey. It is intermediate between ey in fate and 
§ in fairy. 

i in pit is the short vowel corresponding to i, but it is by 
no means identical with it, as may easily be perceived if we 
prolong it, taking care not to alter the sound at all. Fill and 
feel, fit and feet, differ in the quality of the vowel, as well as in 
its length ; and it is sufficiently obvious that in the short vowel 
i the tongue is lowered, making it more open than i. 

The importance of distinguishing between the sounds i and 
i is seen in the study of French, where the long and short i 
differ only in length. The short i in fini, for instance, is just as 
close as long i in lime, and fini must not be pronounced with 
the open i of English finny, nor with the long vowel heard in 
fee and knee. 



52 English Analysis. [§§ 93-95. 

§ 93. The Short Back-round Vowels— o in pot. The 
vowel o in pot is unknown in French and German. It is the 
short vowel corresponding with the long 6 in Paul, and is pro- 
nounced with the tongue in the lowest position possible. 

u in put is not a very common sound in English. It bears 
the same relation to u as i does to i, being decidedly more open 
than its corresponding long vowel u. The u of pull or full 
when prolonged is quite distinct from the long u in pool, fool. 

§ 94. The Short Yowel — ce in but. The symbol most 
frequently used for 03 is u, but it is often represented by o, as 
in son, dove, among, mother. It is not found in French or 
German, and may be regarded as an abnormal vowel. Though 
a back vowel, it is not rounded. 

On the distinction between 03 and a, which sound much 
alike, e.g., in another (ancedhar), see § 100. 

The use of o in those words where it is pronounced as C3 was intro- 
duced by the French, who substituted it for u from a desire for clearness 
in writing, v was then written u, and ou or on was clearer than uu or 
un ; and we find accordingly that o is rarely used for oe except where it 
was introduced for the sake of clearness, e.g., before v or n or m, or after 
m. Sovereign was written for suvereign, but the visible o has affected the 
pronunciation. For these remarks I am indebted to Prof. Skeat. 

In some of the northern counties the vowels ce and u in but and put 
are very frequently interchanged ; and as we have no distinctive symbols 
for these two sounds, but use u for them both, it is difficult to correct this 
provincialism. 

§ 95. Relations of Long and Short Yoweis. Eefer to the 
tables of vowels on pp. xxii.-xxv. In the coupling of long and 
short vowels there are some pairs which call for remark. It is 
sufficiently obvious that the vowels i and i, 6 and o, u and u, 
as in feet, fit, Paul, Polly, pool, pull, must be reckoned as 
pairs ; but the relationships of e, 38 and cs are not so clear. 
The position of e is between ey and e, but somewhat nearer to 
e. Compare the sounds ey and e in gate and get, and e and e 
in fairy and ferry. But as in all the cases where we un- 
questionably have a pair of long and short vowels, the short 



§ 96.] The Short Vowels. 53 

vowel is more open than the long one, it seems right to pair e 
with the closer ey, and to regard 88 in marry as the short vowel 
corresponding to e in Mary. 

Again, oe in burn is not formed in the same place as 03 in 
bun. It is, however, so difficult, for English people at least, to 
pronounce a short accented vowel in a mixed position, that the 
attempt to shorten oe apparently results in the short back vowel 
cs, a little more open than oe, and decidedly further back. 

§ 96. Narrow and Wide Yowels. There seems also to be 
another difference between the long and short vowels in English 
and German. In the Bell-Ellis- Sweet system, i, o, u are called 
wide vowels, because in them the tongue is said to be relaxed 
and widened, whilst in the corresponding long vowels, Dr. 
Sweet says it is " bunched up," and these vowels are called 
narrow. In the Bell system great importance is attached to 
this distinction, and all the vowels are classified as narrow or 
wide, and arranged in separate tables accordingly. But Dr. 
Sweet acknowledges that in some cases it is difficult to distin- 
guish between narrow and wide vowels, and we find not only 
the three great advocates of this system differing among them- 
selves as to which vowels are narrow or wide, but Dr. Sweet 
himself has changed his mind as to the classification of a good 
many vowels since he wrote his Handbook, and the vowels in 
French pere and peur, with many others, have been transferred 
from the narrow table of vowels to the wide, in his more recent 
Primer of Phonetics. Moreover, many phoneticians altogether 
refuse to recognise this distinction, and I have not thought it 
necessary, in my scheme of vowels, to separate the narrow and 
the wide. 

For my own part, I agree with Dr. Sweet that the distinction 
is a real one, and I think he observes truly in the Primer of 
Phonetics that if we take a low- wide (i.e., an open-wide) vowel 
such as 88 in man, we can raise it through e in men to the high 
(close) position of i in it, without its ever running into the 
narrow vowel e in Fr. etc, But in classifying narrow and wide 



54 English Analysis. [§ 97. 

vowels I should, like Prof. Jespersen, reckon all the English 
short accented vowels as wide, together with the German short 
accented vowels in Sonne, konnen, dvnn, and all the long vowels 
in English and German as narrow, though Dr. Sweet considers 
(B to be narrow and a to be wide. 

This at least seems quite clear, that there is a difference of 
some sort between the long and short vowels in English and in 
German ; for it cannot be accidental (1) that the short accented 
vowels are slightly more open than the corresponding long 
ones ; (2) that it is very difficult to lengthen the short ones 
without altering their quality ; and (3) that it is also difficult 
to pronounce them in open syllables. We always find 
them stopped, that is, followed by a consonant in the same 
syllable. 

In an elementary work of this kind, not much can be done 
towards the settlement of a question which has so long caused 
perplexity and divisions among phoneticians ; but the subject is 
interesting in itself, and has so much importance attached to it 
in the works of our three great English phoneticians, that it 
seems impossible to pass it over in silence. It is a question 
which still awaits solution. 

Unaccented Vowels. 

§ 97. The unaccented vowels must be discussed separately. 
They constitute a great difficulty in our language, for they are 
not easy to distinguish from one another, and persons whose 
ear is not trained by the study of phonetics imagine that in 
most cases they pronounce, or ought to pronounce, unaccented 
vowels according to the spelling, when in reality, whatever the 
spelling may be, we very seldom hear any vowel in unaccented 
syllables except these two : (1) a as heard in attend, portable, 
villa, and (2) i as in immense, plentiful, horrid. 

In this matter nothing can be learnt from the generality of 
pronouncing dictionaries, which are all quite misleading, except 
the large unfinished New English Dictionary, where they are 



§ 98.] Unaccented Vowels. 55 

very carefully distinguished. Prof. Trautmann has made a very 
careful study of English unaccented vowels in his Sprachlaute, 
pp. 169-182. 

A comparison of the frequency with which the different 
unaccented vowels occur shows that a is extremely frequent, 
i frequent, o' somewhat rare, and all the rest extremely 
rare. 

§ 98. Examples of the very rare unaccented vowels will be 
found in §§ 25-59, and the student will do well to read them 
through before proceeding to consider a, i and o\ It will then 
be seen that — 

(1) A large proportion of these examples are compound 
words, where there is a slight stress on the weaker syllable, 
as, for instance, in 

dherin fdtel impowst cenjoest 

oethkweyk daunfdl inmowst tiktep 

(2) Long vowels, and also diphthongs, appear occasionally 
in initial syllables without any accent whatever, as in 

s^kaestik ^kwoliti pdtentas powetik 

p^teyk krfeyshan j^dishal aidia 

foetiliti dthoriti kowinsidans yunslt 

(3) The retention of a rare vowel in an unaccented syllable 
is sometimes due to assimilation, the vowel being the same as 
that of the accented syllable adjoining, as in 

poevoes hcebceb aelpseka 

There are also some extremely rare cases which do not fall 
under any of the above rules, e.g. : — 

plaek^d kon-kr^t komp^kt insekt 

sedYoes impdteyshan priysept staipend 

We may now turn to the commoner unaccented vowels, a, 
i and o\ 



56 English Analysis. 99, 100. 

§ 99. The Obscure Yowel a in attend, portable, villa, 
sometimes called the natural or the neutral vowel, is fully- 
illustrated in §§ 33, 51. It would seem that English people 
in general fail to notice the existence of this vowel and confuse 
it with ae in cat, man, etc., for most dictionary makers use the 
same symbol for ge and a, and yet the two vowels are quite 
different in formation and sound. It would be less surprising 
if it were mistaken for ce in jiutty, which in sound, though not 
in formation, resembles it very closely. 

a is called the natural vowel because it is formed when the 
vocal organs are in the position most easy and natural to them, 
and no effort is made to pronounce any vowel in particular. 
Speakers who hesitate use it to fill up gaps in their sentences. 
The tongue is in that intermediate position, with neither back 
nor front especially raised, which produces a mixed vowel, and 
about as high as for e in pet, so that it may be called half-open. 

It is a curious fact that the natural vowels used in different 
languages to fill up gaps in speaking are not identical. The 
French use the vowel in le, and the Germans that in SonnE, 
which differ somewhat from the English a and from one 
another, whilst Scotchmen use a prolonged close e, as in 
German (/eh. The French natural vowel is slightly rounded. 

§ 100. The Distinction between ce and a. Although ce, 
the so-called " but " vowel, and the obscure vowel a, sound 
very much alike, they can almost invariably be distinguished 
by following the rule that a has no accent whatever, whilst ce 
has some sort of accent, primary or secondary. Some excep- 
tions to this rule are given in § 34. Hcebceb is a case of 
assimiliation. Compound words which are felt to be com- 
pounds, such as teacup, unfit, unkind, and all words beginning 
with un-, have a slight stress on the weaker syllable, and 
should be written with ce — tikcep, cenfit, cenkaind, and so 
on ; but compounds like welcome, which are not felt to be such, 
and where the weaker syllable consequently has no stress 
whatever, should be spelt with a — welkam. 



§§ 101, 102.] Unaccented Vowels. 57 

Exx. of 03 and a : — 

amcsng cendoe'n kcerant ancedhar 

abo3Y moedhar hcendrad abcendans 

ajo3st scemar moestar ajcestmant 

cenjcest kcelar ncembar cenkce'mfatabr 

§ 101. Unaccented i and i\ There are two varieties of 
unaccented i. The i in rabbit, frolic, is practically the same 
as accented i in bit, lick ; but a more open sound, intermediate 
between i and e, is often used, e.g., in the terminations -iz, -id, 
-nis, -lis, and the prefixes in-, igz-, iks-, and wherever i is 
final, or followed by a vowel. 

For purposes of discussion, this open i may be written i\ 

Exx. of i', intermediate between i and e. 



fishiz 


fulnis 


inteyl 


foli 


wishiz 


gudm's 


ingeyj 


meri 


weytid 


restlis 


igzist 


meriar 


wontid 


fruwth's 


iksiyd 


glorias 



All the cases where i* is used instead of i seem to be 
accounted for either by position or by spelling. By position 
when the vowel is final, as in foli, or followed by a vowel, as 
in meriar, and by spelling in all other cases, such as fishiz, 
fulnis, where e is written, and in aiming at e we produce a 
sound intermediate between e and i, but nearer to i. 

Care must be taken in weak syllables to distinguish between 
i and a. It is a bad fault, but a very common one, to pronounce 
a instead of i, and one may often hear yunati, abilati, and the 
like. Irish people also introduce a into the terminations -iz, 
-id, -nis and -lis, pronouncing them -az, -ad, -nas, -las. 

§ 102. Short o' in pillow. This vowel differs slightly from 
the long ow in pole, low, being more open and mixed than the 
first part of ow, whilst the second part of ow is hardly heard. 
It is most usually found at the end of words, or in the last 
syllable followed by a consonant, as in follow y hero, followed, 
heroes (folo', hiaro', folo'd, hiaro'z). When it occurs in initial 



58 English Analysis. [§§ 103, 104. 

or medial syllables, as in pro'sid, elo'kyushan, the syllables 
are always open, that is, they do not end in a consonant. 

Unaccented ow may be distinguished from o' by observing 
that this rare sound occurs only in compounds such as inmowst, 
impowst, where there is a slight stress upon it, or in initial 
syllables, with a vowel following, as in kowoes, kowopareyt. 

0' in final syllables should never be allowed to degenerate 
into a. Careless speakers often pronounce fela, winda, and 
so on, and even add on a r, saying " dha windar iz owpnV 
Walker says that in his time belas and gaelas for bellows and 
gallows were universal, but we have now returned to the forms 
belo'z, gselo'z. 

§ 103. e' and u' in survey and value. Besides i', which 
has already been discussed, there are two other vowels in 
unaccented syllables for which no distinctive symbols need be 
used. For purposes of discussion they may be represented as 
e' and u\ They are generally represented by ey and u. 

e' is extremely rare. It is found in survey (sb.) and essay 
(soeve', ese'), and bears the same relation to long ey in. fate as 
o' does to ow. 

u* is more frequent, and occurs, like o', in final syllables, 
open or close, and in initial and medial syllables which are 
open. It most frequently appears as part of the diphthong yu. 
It differs from u in put, and from unaccented u in fulfil, wilful, 
manhood (maenhud), etc., in being somewhat mixed. 

Exx. of u' : — 

mtu Yselywd prejwdis inflwenshal 

Yeelyw Yoety^z dywreyshan inflwans 

Yoetyw instiwmant my^nifisant inkonggrwas 

Diphthongs. 

§ 104. Diphthongs are not formed by simply pronouncing 
two vowels in succession. They begin with one vowel and end 
with another, but the change from one to the other is gradual. 



§ 105.] Diphthongs. 59 

The vocal organs pass through all the intermediate positions, 
so that the sound is changing all the time, and it is therefore 
difficult, in some cases, to analyse them accurately. 

The diphthongs ea, ia, 6a, ua, occurring in bear, bier, boar, 
boor, are seldom met with except where r follows, so they will 
be discussed in connexion with that consonant, and ey and 
OW, which may be reckoned as diphthongs, have been explained 
already ; so we have to consider here — 

§ 105. The Diphthongs ai, an, oi, yu, as in time, loud, 
noise, tune. There is some diversity of opinion as to the 
elements of which these diphthongs are composed. The fact 
is that it is difficult to dwell upon the separate elements without 
altering their character. I should say that the result of a rough 
analysis, the only analysis of which children would be capable, 
is as follows : — 

ai in taim = a + i. oi in noiz = 6 + i. 

au ,, laud = a + u. yu ,, tyun = y + u. 

But on analysing ai more carefully, we find that it lies 
between a and i, without quite reaching either extremity. 
The first sound in ai is the French a in patte, midway between 
a and 88, for which we may use the symbol a, and the last is 
i', the vowel between e and i. 

There are, however, three English words containing a 
diphthong which resembles ai, and yet is not quite identical 
with it, having the full sound of a for its first element. It 
may be represented by ai, and is heard in Isaiah, aye and 
ayah (Aizaia, ai, aia). 

au is composed of a and the mixed vowel u', as in pre- 
judice, influence, and oi of 6 and i'. 

yu in accented syllables is composed of y and u, but yu in 
unaccented syllables, e.g., in regular (regyular), consists of y 
and u\ The sound of u, as in put, fulfil, is never heard in 
this diphthong, nor do we ever meet with the short form of yu 
in monosyllables or accented syllables. 



60 English Analysis. [§ 105. 

So this is the more accurate analysis of these four diph- 
thongs : — 

ai = a + i\ Accented yu = y + u. 

au = a + U\ Unaccented yu = y + ll\ 

• a. • ■ 

01 = + 1 . 

In words where unaccented yu is followed by a, as in 
annual, conspicuous (senyual, kanspikyuas), yu is often 
reduced to yw and ceases to form a separate syllable. When 
such words have another syllable added to them, as in 
annually, conspicuously (aenywali, kanspikywasli), yu is, I 
think, always reduced to yw. 

Many phoneticians omit yfi, yu, yw from among the diphthongs, and 
regard it simply as a combination of a consonant with a vowel, but it 
seems convenient to follow the example of Dr. Murray, who reckons it as 
a diphthong. 



IV. 



ENGLISH SYNTHESIS. 



§ 106. Combinations of r with Yowels, Diphthongs and 

Triphthongs. 



a 


far 
star 


ja(r) 
sta(r) 


jaring 
stari 


jad 
staz 


06 


fur 
stir 


foe(r) 

stoe(r) 


foeri 
stoering 


foez 
stoed 


a 


beggar 
render 


bega(r) 
renda(r) 


begari 
rendaring 


begaz 
rendad 


ia 


fear 
steer 


fia(r) 
stia(r) 


fiaring 
stiaring 


fiaz 
stiad 


ua 


moor 
assure 


mua(r) 
ashua(r) 


miiaring 
ashuaring 


muaz 
ashuad 


aia 


fire 
prior 


faia(r) 
praia(r) 


faiaring 
praiari 


faiad 
praiaz 


aua 


sour 
tower 


saua(r) 
taua(r) 


sauarist 
tauaring 


sauad 
tauaz 


ytia 


cure 
lure 


kyua(r) 
lyua(r) 


kyuaring 
lyuaring 


kyuaz 
lyuad 


A. A. 

e, ea 


bear 
stare 


bea(r) 
stea(r) 


bfering 
stering 


beaz 
stead 


o, oa 


roar 
store 


roa(r) 

stoa(r) 

(61) 


roring 
storing 


roz 
stod 



eya 


flayer 


pleya(r) 


owa 


lower 


lowa(r) 


oia 


employer 


emploia(r) 



62 English Synthesis. [§§ 107, 108. 

The following combinations are very rare : — 

pleyaz 
lowaring lowad 

emploiaz 

r in Combination with the Vowels. 

§ 107. The consonant r is the most perplexing element in 
our language. Dr. Ellis wrote in 1875 that after more than 
thirty years' study he was not certain whether he had yet 
mastered its protean intricacies ; so it will need special atten- 
tion on the part of the student. 

The manner in which r is formed has been explained in § 
68, and a large number of examples showing it in combination 
with the vowels will be found in §§ 45-59. The chief facts 
concerning it will, however, be more easily grasped by re- 
ferring to the table at the head of this chapter, which shows 
the changes that take place in the inflections of words ending 
in r. 

There is so much diversity of practice in the pronunciation 
of words written with r, that it may be well to repeat that the 
pronunciation given here is my own, i.e., that of an educated 
Southerner. The same alphabet can, however, be used to 
represent other pronunciations, as is shown in § 145. 

§ 108. The chief points to be noticed are these : — 

1. r is never heard unless a vowel follows it. Accordingly, 
it will be seen on inspecting the table that r is written before a 
vowel in jarring, starry (jaring, stari), etc., but omitted when, 
in other forms of the same words, a consonant is added, as in 
jarred, stars (jad, staz). 

There is an apparent exception to this rule in such words as barrel, 
barren, quarrel, sorrel, which are often pronounced (baerl', b38rn', kworl', 
sorl'), but in these cases the 1' and n', being syllabic, are equivalent to 

vowels. 

2. All icords ending in r have at least two forms, r final is 



§ 108.] r in Combination with the Vowels. 63 

never heard unless a vowel follows in the next word. So r 
final is sounded in stin up, render an account, fean of punish- 
ment, but silent in stm the fire, render thanks, fean nothing. 

In this book the longer forms, stoer, rendar, fiar, and so 
on, are always employed, but in the table at the head of this 
chapter r final is enclosed in brackets, to indicate that it is 
sometimes silent. 

We have an analogous case in the article a or an, where the 
n disappears before a consonant in the next word. And the 
same thing occurs frequently in French, where many final 
consonants are silent unless there is a liaison with a vowel in 
the word which follows. 

3. r sometimes lengthens the vowels which precede it. 
Compare for instance : — ■ 

bad and bar (bsed, bar) 

bed ,, her (bed, hoer) 

bid ,, stir (bid, stoer) 

nod „ nor (nod, nor) 

bud ,, fur (bced, foer) 

It is only in unaccented syllables that we meet with a short 
vowel before final r, and that vowel is always the same, namely 
a, whatever may be written in our ordinary spelling, e.g., in 
pillar, centre, silver, sailor, honour, pleasure, martyr. 

4. r produces diphthongs and triphthongs. On referring to 
the table in § 106, it will be seen that r produces the four 
diphthongs ea, ia, 6a, ua, besides eya and owa, which are 
very rare, and three triphthongs, aia, aua, yua, besides the 
rare triphthong oia, all ending with the vowel a, as in villa. 

5. These diphthongs and triphthongs remain when r dis- 
appears, as may be seen by the exx. in the table. The a 
which preceded the r is even more distinctly heard in fears, 
moors, fires (f iaz, muaz, faiaz), where the r is silent, than in 
fearing, mooring, firing. 

6. The a is often a separate syllable, though not commonly 



64 English Synthesis. [§ 109. 

reckoned as such. Sere is as truly a dissyllable as seer. Com- 
pare also the following exx. : — 

rear and freer hour and shower 

poor ,, doer flour ,, flower 

hire ,, higher pure ,, ewer 

lyre ,, liar cure ,, skewer 

7. § and 6 are not ahvays changed into ea, 6a by r following 
them, so they are put last in the table as requiring more ex- 
planation. But the four vowels ey, i, ow, u, and the four 
diphthongs ai ? au, oi, yu, never have r immediately after 
them. The sound a, as in villA, is always inserted before r. 

This rule is never broken in accented syllables, but in un- 
accented syllables there are some rare exceptions. See air and 
yur in §§ 56, 59. In these cases the r belongs to the syllable 
which follows, and so is disconnected from the preceding ai or 

yu. 

8. English people often think they hear r when it is silent. 
Many fancy that they hear it in such words as fierce, fears, 
moors (fias, fiaz, muaz), when what they really hear is the 
sound a as in villa. And, as Prof. Skeat has remarked, some 
even think that they hear it in barn, pronounced like the 
German Bahn (ban), and in arms and lord, when they sound 
exactly like alms and laud (amz, lod). But in such cases the 
r only serves to indicate that we pronounce the long vowels a 
and 5 instead of the short vowels as and o, as in am and odd 
(sem, od). 

9. This occasions many mistakes in French and German. 
For (1) Englishmen often fancy that they pronounce r when 
they really neglect to do so, and (2) they have a bad habit of 
inserting a, either before it or as a substitute for it, pronouncing 
French dire and pour just like English dear and poor, and so on. 

These are the principal points to be observed, but it may be 
useful to note some further details. 

§ 109. ia, ua. The diphthongs ia and ua, as in peer, poor, 



§§ 110,111.] r in Combination with the Vowels. 65 

are not longer than the vowels i and u, from which they are 
derived, the first element being shorter than i or u. But in 
sound these first elements resemble the long vowels i and u in 
peel and pool rather than the short i and u in pit and put, being 
much closer than these. The length of the last element is 
variable, being shorter when followed by the sound of r, as in 
peerage, poorest, than when the r is silent. When the r is 
heard, this a can hardly be reckoned as a separate syllable. 

In some words ia has a tendency to change into yoe, that 
is, the stress is transferred to the second element, which is 
lengthened, whilst the first is so shortened as to become a 
consonant. Ear is often, and year almost always, pronounced 
exactly like year in yearn (yoen), except that the final r is 
liable to be trilled when a vowel follows, and it is only by a 
special effort that any one can pronounce year as yiar. And 
in like manner here, near, dear are often pronounced hyoer, 
nyoer, dyoer. 

There is also in ua a tendency to become 6, as in your, 
generally pronounced yor, and rhyming with for. Compare 
also Bournemouth and Eastbourne, pronounced by some Buan- 
mauth and Istbuan, and by others Bonmath and Istbon. 
And it is not unusual to hear shor and sholi for sure and 
surely, though this pronunciation is not to be recommended. 

§ 110. aia, aua, yua. In these also the final a is decidedly 
shortened when r follows, as in fiery, flowering, purest (faiari, 
flanaring, pyuarisi). 

§ 111. ea, 6a. In these the first sounds are e and 6 as in 
fairy and Paul, but shortened. In ea and 6a the second 
element, a, is short and less distinct than at the close of ia, 
ua, aia, aua, yuar, so that it cannot be reckoned as a separate 
syllable. 

The use of these diphthongs varies very much in the speech 
of different people ; and also in the mouth of the same person 
the diphthongs ea, 6a are liable to be reduced to e and 6 re- 
spectively when the word in which they occur is inflected, or 

5 



66 English Synthesis. [§ 111. 

even when its position in the sentence is changed, so that they 
are very perplexing. The following rules apply to my pro- 
nunciation, but are not of universal application. 

ea is distinctly heard when no r is sounded after it, but it 
is reduced to e when the r is sounded on account of a vowel 
following in the same or in the next word, or at least the 
second part of the diphthong so nearly disappears as to be 
practically unnoticeable. So if we did not aim at a fixed spell- 
ing for each word we ought for bear, stare, etc., to write bea, 
stea, and so on, when such words are at the end of a sentence, 
or followed by a consonant in the next word, e.g., in a black 
bear, to stare wildly, and ber, ster when the next word begins 
with a vowel, as in bear it, do not stare at him. But it seems 
most convenient to write bear, stear, etc., in every case. 

When these words ending in -ear, or, to speak more 
exactly, in -ea or -er, are inflected, they follow the same rule, 
and we have er before a vowel and ea before a consonant ; so 
we pronounce and write er in bearing, staring (bering, stering), 
and ea in bears, stares (beaz, steaz). 

It is a curious fact that in the word girl a sound is often heard inter- 
mediate between ea and oe. The dictionaries give oe, making it rhyme 
with pearl, and that is the pronunciation I myself aim at, but my friends 
tell me I really pronounce it differently, something like ea in pear. And 
certainly this intermediate sound is the prevailing one amongst cultivated 
people, whilst some of them definitely pronounce it §a, as if it were spelt 
gairl. 

6a is not so often heard as ea, being noticeable only when 
such a word as roar, store is at the end of a sentence, in which 
case the r of course disappears. So in I heard the lion roar, 
Give me some more, Shut the door, we hear roa, moa, doa. 
But if such words are followed by another word, or inflected, 
the a disappears ; and if it is a vowel that follows, we hear or, 
as in Give me some more ink (mdr), roaring, storing (roring, 
storing), or if a consonant, simply 6, as in Give me some more 
pens (mo), roared, stored (rod, stod). 



112, 113.] r in Combination with the Vowels. 



67 



All such words as roar, store, door, pour have therefore in 
reality three different forms, according to position, ending in 
6a when final, in or when followed by a vowel, and in 5 when 
followed by a consonant, though it is convenient to use for 
them the fixed spellings roar, stoar, doar, poar. 

As the different forms of the words we write with the 
endings ear and oar are difficult to remember, it may be 
convenient to arrange some of them in a tabular form, to show 
more clearly how the pronunciation is affected by their position 
in the sentence. 





Before a 


Before a 






vowel. 


consonant. 


Final. 


bear 


ber 


bea 


bea 


pear 


per 


pea 


pea 


wear 


wer 


wea 


wea 


boar 


bor 


bo 


boa 


hoar 


nor 


ho 


hoa 


soar 


sor 


so 


soa 



Examples : — Bear up (ber). Bear no malice (bea). More 
than I can bear (bea). The wild boar is fierce (bor). The boar 
was hilled (bo). He caught a loild boar (boa). 

§ 112. or in Weak Words and Syllables. In the weak 
words or, nor, for, your, and in the unaccented final syllables 
of therefore, tuherefore, lessor, vendor, guarantor, we have the 
ending or before a vowel and 6 in other cases, but 6a is seldom 
or never heard, and we spell them all with or, thus : or, nor, 
for, yor, dhearfor, and so on. 

§ 113. eya, owa, oia. Although ey and ow are among the 
commonest vowels in our language, all these combinations are 
extremely rare. For before r it is much easier to pronounce 
the corresponding open vowels e and 6. And the combinations 
eyr, owr are unknown in English, it being still more difficult 
to pass from ey or ow to r without inserting a. Great care 
must therefore be taken in pronouncing such German words as 
schwer, Ohr, (1) to avoid the open vowels heard in bear and 



68 English Synthesis. [§§ 114, 115. 

boar, and (2) not to insert a after e(y) and o(w). It used to 
distress my excellent German mistress, Frau Flohr, very much, 
that her pupils would persist in pronouncing her name just like 
the English word floor. 1 

§ 114. Varieties of Pronunciation in words spelt with r. It may 
be well to show how the alphabet used here can be employed to repre- 
sent some varieties of pronunciation in words spelt with r. To represent 
correctly some pronunciations which are frequently heard, it would be 
necessary to use : — 

1. aa instead of & in such words as jarred, stars, barn, far (jaad, 
Stciaz, baan, faar), to indicate that the sound heard is a diphthong ending 
with the a in villa. To write r before a consonant would be misleading, 
as the consonant r is not heard, but only a vowel glide. 

2. §ar instead of §r wherever I write er, i.e., in such words as fairy, 
bearing, staring (feari, bearing, stearing), where a vowel follows the r, 
to indicate that a diphthong is heard and not a simple vowel. 

3. 6a instead of 6 in words spelt with or followed by a consonant, 
such as cord, north (koad, n6ath), etc., to show that the simple vowel is 
changed into a diphthong. 

4. owar instead of 6ar in more, door (mowar, dowar), etc., to indi- 
cate that in such words there is the half-closed vowel of pole, and not the 
open vowel of Paul. 

Doubled Sounds. 

§ 115. These are not very frequent, though doubled letters 
are very common in our ordinary spelling, but several con- 
sonants and the short vowel i are sometimes doubled. 

Examples of : — 

tt, dd, kk. mm, nn. 11, ss, ii. 

kowtteyl immyu'ar sowlli 

heddres unnesisari howlli 

bukkeys unnown missteytmant 

bukkiping inneyt pitiing 

kaeriing 

1 §a and 6a (6 and 6 less open than in English), in German words 
such as schwer, Ohr, are common, especially in large towns, but are still 
considered slovenly. — Ed. 



§ 116.] Consonants Combined. 69 

In the case of doubled i, what is done is to give a sudden 
increase of force to the vowel, which marks the beginning of a 
new syllable. But when explosive consonants are doubled it 
should be noticed that the first consonant differs from the 
second. The organs of speech take the right position for the 
formation of the consonant, whatever it may be, and the re- 
opening of the passage through the mouth is delayed a little, 
but the opening or explosion is not made twice over. The first 
consonant is heard in the act of closing and the second in the 
act of opening. 

When a liquid or a continuant is doubled, the sound is 
prolonged, and an increase of force is given to indicate the 
beginning of a new syllable. In the case of continuants it is 
not easy to make the increase of force heard, and this proves 
somewhat inconvenient for ladies whose names happen to 
begin with S, unless they have a well-known name like Smith. 
Servants attempting to announce such a name as Miss Soames 
or Miss Sprigg generally call it Mis Owmz or Mis Prig, and 
the only safeguard against this is to make a pause after Miss 
when giving them the name. 

Consonants Combined. 

§ 116. Combinations of Consonants. ImplosiYe and 
ExplosiYe Consonants. It is not only doubled consonants 
which are liable to be modified in the manner just described, 
for whenever two consonants which are ordinarily explosive 
come together, there is only one explosion, the first consonant 
being heard only in the act of shutting the breath passage, 
whilst the second is heard in the act of opening. In such 
cases, though both consonants may be called stops, or shut 
consonants, it is only the second that is explosive. The first is 
said to be implosive. Observe how the consonants are formed 
in such words as &kt, lopt, ro&bd, hegd, for instance. There 
is no explosion for the k, p, b and g in these cases. 

Shut consonants followed by a liquid are modified in a 



70 English Synthesis. [§§ 117, 118. 

similar way, the vocal organs being placed in the right position 
for the liquid before the explosion takes place. 

Examples : — Brai£«\ beykn', boil', &pl', onpn\ fikV . 



Inflections. 

§ 117. The real character of English inflections is often 
disguised by our spelling. For instance, the termination t in 
looked is written ed, though it is really the same as the t in 
slept. And there are also vowel changes which do not appear 
in written English. We find, for example, that the present 
and past tenses of the verb to read are written alike, although 
pronounced respectively rid and red. It may therefore be 
convenient, without giving a complete view of the inflections 
of English, to show those which are not clear in our ordinary 
spelling. 

§ 118. The Terminations t, d, id, s, z, iz. These endings 
to verbs and nouns are written in our ordinary spelling as t, d, 
ed, s, ce, es, as in the following examples : — 

felt t = t hopes s = s 

hoped d = t pence ce = s 

moved d = d pens s = z 

added ed = id dresses es — iz 

The rules governing the use of these terminations are 
that : — 

(1) After a hard consonant we use a hard consonant, either 
t or s, as the case may be. 

(2) After a soft consonant or a vowel we use a soft consonant, 
either d or z. 

And the exceptions are these : — 

(1) After a liquid we sometimes use t, and in the word 
pence we use s after the liquid n, although all our liquids are 
soft. 

(2) After consonants which cannot conveniently be com- 



§ 119.] 



Inflections. 



71 



bined with d or z because of their similarity to them, we retain 
the vowel i, making the terminations id and iz. 

The consonants which cannot be combined with d are the 
point stops t and d, and those which cannot be combined with 
z are the point (and point blade) continuants or sibilants s, 
z, sh, zh, and the composite consonants, ending in sibilants, 
ch = t + sh and j = d + zh. 

Examples of endings t, d, id, s, z, iz : — 



After hard 


After soft 


After 


After 


After t, d, and 


consonants. 


consonants. 


vowels. 


liquids. 


silibants. 


dropt 


robd 


pleyd 


dremt 


spotid 


nokt 


begd 


frid 


sind 


dredid 


poeft 


liYd 


flowd 


loent 


dresiz 


goetht 


beydhd 


¥yiid 


boent 


myuziz 


drest 


myuzd 


fasnsid 


longd 


pushiz 


pusht 


ruzhd 


folo'd 


sweld 


ruzhiz 


fecht 


ejd 


pleyz 


dwelt 


fechiz 


drops 


robz 


friz 


drimz 


ejiz 


spots 


dredz 


flowz 


penz 




noks 


begz 


yyuz 


pens 




poafs 


Hyz 


fsensiz 


singz 




goeths 


beydhz 


folo'z 


telz 





The word haus makes the plural hauziz, changing s into z 
before the termination iz. 

Note particularly that after the liquids m, n, 1 in the follow- 
ing words we should pronounce t, though they are often written 
with ed : — 

boent, loent, dremt, dwelt, spilt, spelt, spoilt. But in 
the Biblical phrase they spoiled the Egyptians, where the 
meaning is they took spoils from, we pronounce spoild. 

§ 119. Change of th to dh. The plural of substantives 
and the third person of verbs ending in th are very frequently 
formed by changing th to dh and adding z, just as f is often 
changed to y in similar cases, e.g., in loaf, loaves, thief, thieves 



72 



English Synthesis. 



[§§ 120, 121. 



(lowf, Iowyz, thif, thiYz). After a short vowel or a consonant 
the th is retained, as in breaths, deaths, months, tenths, healths, 
but after a long vowel the change generally takes place, as in 
these examples : — 

bath badhz owth owdhz mauth maudhz 
shith shidhz path padhz yuth yudhz 
rith ridhz kloth klodhz truth trudhz 

§ 120. Changes of Yowels, The following changes of 
vowels are not apparent in ordinary spelling : — 



child 


children 


chaild 


childran 


woman 


women 


wuman 


wimin 


pence 


sixpence 


pens 


sikspans 


say 


says, said 


sey 


sez, sed 


do 


does 


du 


dcez 


read 


read 


rid past 


tense and part. ] 


eat 


eat, ate 


it 


et 


dream 


dreamed 


drim 


dremt 


lean 


leaned 


lin 


lent 


leap 


leaped 


lip 


lept 


mean 


meant 


min 


ment 


hear 


heard 


hiar 


hoed 


can 


can't 


kssn 


kant 


shall 


shan't 


shesl 


shant 


do 


don't 


du 


downt 



There is no change of vowel in the plural gentlemen, nor in 
plurals formed from names of nations ending in a sibilant, such 
as Englishmen, Frenchmen, Welshmen, which are pronounced 
just like the singular. 

§ 121. The past tense of ash (ask) is pronounced ast, the k 
being dropped. 

Note that there is a distinction in sound, though not in 
spelling, between the following verbs and the corresponding 
adjectives :— 



122.] Accent. 73 





Past tense 
and part, of verb. 


Adjectiv 


aged 
learned 


eyjd 
loent 


eyjid 
loenid 


cursed 


koest 


koesid 


blessed 


blest 


blesid 


beloved 


biloe'Yd 


biloB'Yi 



And used, past tense and part, of to use, is pronounced 
yuzd, whilst used = accustomed is pronounced yust. 

The form yust is probably due to assimilation, for used = 
accustomed is always followed by to. But when used, past 
tense or part, of use, is followed by t, as in I used two brushes, 
It has been used to-day, the pronunciation yuzd is retained. 

Accent. 

§ 122. In English the accented syllables are strongly 
emphasised, whilst the unaccented ones are pronounced indis- 
tinctly, so that students of French, where every syllable, unless 
elided, is heard quite clearly, and the accent or stress is nearly 
equal throughout the sentence, have to pay special attention to 
the difference between the two languages in this respect. 

In many words we have principal and secondary accents, 
e.g., in ventilation, characteristic, where the first syllable has a 
secondary accent. But in this scheme secondary accents are 
not marked. 

Accented syllables are marked thus : — infest. When 
printers have a difficulty in supplying the type, or the vowel 
has already a diacritic mark over it, the accent can be put 
after the vowel, thus : — infe'st, impo'tant. 

It would be superfluous to mark the accent under ordinary 
circumstances, except in the case of foreign or unfamiliar words, 
but in lessons for children it must be inserted, unless its place 
can be easily determined by rule. In phonetic spelling it would 
be easy to distinguish nearly all those pairs of words which we 



74 English Synthesis. [§§ 123-125. 

are in the habit of spelling alike and accenting differently, 
without marking the accent, as may be seen in the following 
examples : — 

rebel = rebl' or ribel 

accent = seksant ,, seksent 

present = prezant ,, prizent 

absent = sebsant ,, aebsent 

record = rekod ., rikod 

protest = prowtest ,, pro'test 

refuse = refyus ,, rifyuz 

§ 123. In our language the accent generally falls upon the 
first syllable, and in a good many words it has been shifted 
accordingly. The following words, for instance, used to be 
accented on the second syllable, but now have the accent on 
the first : — 

balcony, barrier, effort, essay, record (subst.). And two 
other facts should be noted : — 

(1) a and o' are never accented, and — 

(2) Certain terminations, the commonest of which are 
-shan, -zhan, -shal, and -iti, always cause the accent to be on 
the preceding syllable. 

So in this book words which have no accent marked are 
accented according to the following — 
§ 124. Accent Rules. 

1. Words ending in -shan, -zhan, -shal, or -iti, have the 
accent on the preceding syllable. Examples : — ditoeminey- 
shan, diyizhan, benifishal, impyuniti. 

2. Other words are accented on the first syllable, unless 
the vowel of that syllable is a or o', in which cases the accent 
is on the second syllable. Examples : — amceng, parental, 
pro'test, o'bey. 

§ 125. Accentuation of Compound Words. In words 
which are not compounds, we do not accent two consecutive 
syllables, but one or more unaccented syllables occur between 



§§ 126-129.] Accent 75 

the principal (') and secondary (•) accents, as in kae'raktaristik, 
ditoe'mineyshan. In fact, the secondary accents are intro- 
duced merely because it is difficult to pronounce many un- 
accented syllables in succession. But in compound words, or 
rather in such words as are felt to be compounds, each part of 
the word has its own proper accent, so that the accents may 
happen to fall upon two consecutive syllables, as in meydsoevant. 

In compound words one of the accents is subordinated to the 
other, and may be called a secondary accent. In pitfol, aut- 
breyk, wochwoed, for instance, the chief stress is on the first 
syllable, and in osnnown, disteystful, it is on the second. 

The prefix can is always felt to be separable, and has a slight 
stress upon it. On the other hand, some familiar words, such 
as brekfast, kcebard, are no longer felt to be compounds, and 
in these only one syllable is accented. 

§ 126. Level Stress. The word amen and the interjec- 
tions halloa ! bravo ! are said to have level stress, as in them 
both syllables are equally accented, but such instances are rare. 

§ 127. Shifting Accent. There are a few dissyllables 
which have the principal accent on the first or second syllable, 
according to circumstances. We say, for instance, His age is 
fifteen. I have fifteen shillings. Some fell by the wayside. 
A wayside inn. They sat outside. An outside passenger. He 
went downstairs. A downstairs room. Among the Chinese. A 
Chinese lantern. I saw the princess. I saw Princess Alice. 

§ 128. Contrasted Words. The accent is also shifted 
when we want to contrast two words, the principal stress being 
laid on the syllable which serves to distinguish them. So we 
say, agreeable and disagreeable, decided and undecided, open and 
re" -open, ascend and descend, though the principal accents gener- 
ally fall as follows : — disagreeable, undecided, re-open, ascend, 
descend. 

% 129. Sentence Stress or Emphasis. This subject will 
not be fully treated here, and in the reading-book sentence 
stress has not been marked in any way. All that has been 



76 English Synthesis. [§ 129. 

done is to indicate the strongest syllable in each word, and it is 
left to the reader to distinguish how the words must be more 
or less strongly stressed according to their places in the 
sentence. But it seems necessary to indicate the principles 
which govern the use of stress in sentences. These appear to 
be two : — 

(1) Logical Stress. In English the most important words 
in the sentence are stressed, e.g., in Give me some bread, the 
stress falls upon give and bread, at least under ordinary circum- 
stances. But just as, in exceptional cases, we have seen that 
the stress in words may for special purposes be shifted from 
one syllable to another for the sake of contrast, so under special 
circumstances we might say, Give me some bread, implying that 
the speaker is afraid of being overlooked, or Give me sdme 
bread to intimate that he does not ask to have it all. But as 
M. Passy has observed, in such cases the stressed words or 
syllables are those which are the most important under the 
circumstances, so that they are not real, but only apparent 
exceptions to the rule. 

(2) Rhythmical Stress. The stress is also much affected 
by the rhythm of the sentence. We have noticed how in words 
of many syllables there is generally a well-marked secondary 
stress, just because it is not convenient to pronounce many 
weak syllables in succession. Words which are an exception 
to this rule, such as temporarily, laboratory, where we have 
four weak syllables coming together, are difficult to pronounce 
on that account. And so in sentences there is a tendency to 
introduce stress at regular intervals, it being convenient to find 
a series of syllables to lean upon at intervals which are tolerably 
regular. It is true that the logical accent falling upon the chief 
words in the sentence is of the first importance, and cannot be 
altogether set aside ; and yet if a set discourse, or any long 
sentence, be listened to with a view to noticing the stress, it 
will be found that the accents seem to occur very regularly. 
And closer observation will show that, as a general rule, we 



§ 129.] Accent. 77 

unconsciously select amongst the accented syllables some which 
shall bear the chief stress, and contrive to let these occur at 
regular intervals of time, hurrying over the intermediate 
syllables if they are many, and taking them slowly if they are 
but few. 

This principle of rhythm in prose was first expounded by 
Mr. Joshua Steele in his Essay towards Establishing the Melody 
and Measure of Speech, a.d. 1775, and his Prosodia Bationalis, 
1779, and succeeding teachers of elocution have approved of 
this view, e.g., Dr. Eush, Philosophy of the Voice, p. 364; Dr. 
Barber, and Chapman in his Bhythmical Grammar. The 
theory was first brought to my notice many years ago in 
Curwen's Grammar of Vocal Music, p. 108, and since then I 
have often listened to speaking with a view to testing it, and 
have never failed to observe that the strongly-accented syllables 
occur with great regularity. Even when there is a pause in 
speaking, the interval then found between the two nearest 
strong syllables is a multiple of the time which usually elapses. 
I observe however a tendency to shorten the interval between 
the last two strong syllables before a pause. 

It is right to mention that neither Dr. Ellis nor Dr. Sweet 
believe in this law of rhythm ; but the evidence of my own ear 
so strongly confirms Steele's rule that I cannot refuse to accept 
it, and I am said to have a good ear for time in music. I think 
however that a first-rate reader or speaker does not adhere so 
strictly to the rule as ordinary people, and that if you would 
find examples where it absolutely governs the accentuation, you 
must listen to the reading of passages which have been read 
over and over again till they are nearly known by heart, e.g., 
the liturgy of the Church of England. 

If the ear did not expect the strong syllables to occur 
regularly, the variety produced by the skilful speaker who 
occasionally departs from the rule would not be appreciated as 
it now is, and the rule does not cease to be a rule because it is 
subject to some exceptions. 



78 English Synthesis. [§§ 130, 131. 

Quantity. 

§ 130. Although the English vowels naturally fall into two 
classes, long and short, their length is not always fixed and 
invariable. It depends upon two things, (1) whether they are 
accented or unaccented, and (2) whether they are followed by 
a hard consonant. 

It is obvious, for instance, that unaccented 6 in othoriti is 
shorter than accented 6 in othar, that kad is longer than kat, 
and maen longer than kset. 

Dividing the vowels into long, half-long, and short, they 
may be classified thus : — 

Long. All so-called long vowels and diphthongs, when 
they are accented and either final or followed by a soft con- 
sonant. Examples : — 

fa(r) feyl blow taim 

foe(r) fil blu laud 

Half-long. (1) All so-called long vowels and diphthongs, 
when followed by a hard consonant. Examples : — 

kat feyt bowt lait 

hoet fit but aut 

(2) All so-called short vowels, when followed by a soft 
consonant. Examples : — 

seen hged fed hil rod 

meed keeb hen pig dol 

Short. All so-called short vowels, when followed by a hard 
consonant. Examples : — 

kcet paet pet pit pot 

keep maep pek stif dros 

For further details, see the chapter on quantity in Dr. 
Sweet's Primer of Spoken English. 

§ 131. It is important to notice the influence of hard and 
soft consonants on the quantity of the vowels which precede 



§§ 132, 133.] Syllable Division. 79 

them, because English people are apt to introduce this habit 
of altering the length of the vowels into the German language, 
where their length is not affected by the consonant which 
follows. Prof. Vietor frequently calls attention to this mistake 
in his book on German Pronunciation. 

The following arrangement may be a help in remembering 
the rules for quantity : — 

Long. Half-long. Short. 

,g Long {5d ) k&t 

rt Short keen kset 

8 t fpky 

>> Long i , J , , , 

^ b Ipleyd pleyt 

| Short led let 

| T /flow 

o lj0ng (flowd flowt 

Short rod rot 

Syllable Division. 

§ 132. Speech is not, as some persons imagine, divided into 
words by means of pauses, or in any such way as will enable 
the ear to perceive the division. Common phrases, such as at 
all events, are often mistaken by children for single words, until 
they have been seen in writing. Indeed it is now generally 
recognised that the true unit of speech is the sentence, and not 
the word, whether we regard speech phonetically, or as the 
expression of thought, or go back to the history of its origin. 
This theory was first propounded by Waitz, and there is a very 
interesting exposition of it in Sayce's Science of Language, 
vol. i. 85-87, 110-132. 

§ 133. Breath Groups. Regarded phonetically, speech 
consists of breath groups, and these again are composed of 
syllables. The breath group, which is usually a whole sentence, 
and occasionally only a part of one, is easily recognised, as it 



80 English Synthesis. [§§ 134-139. 

consists of all the sounds uttered without pausing to take breath ; 
but the limits of the syllable are not always very clearly denned. 

§ 134. Intensity of Sound. The grouping of sounds in 
syllables depends upon the relative intensity of the sounds, 
that is, on their being more or less easily heard. And their 
intensity depends partly on the fact that some sounds are 
naturally more sonorous than others, and partly on the force 
of expiration used in uttering them. 

§ 135. Intensity due to Particular Sounds. In such a 
word as solid, the division into syllables is due to the difference 
in the qualities of the sounds employed. The two vowels are 
more sonorous than either of the three consonants, and each 
vowel forms the nucleus of a syllable, the intermediate con- 
sonant 1 belonging to neither syllable in particular. 

§ 136. Intensity due to Effort of Speaker. But if we 
study the syllable division of such words and phrases as pitiing, 
missteytmant, kopi it, Mis Smith, we find that a new syllable 
may be begun, without any change of sound, by merely giving 
a fresh impulse of force to the sounds i and s. 

§ 137. Syllable Division. These then are the two facts 
upon which syllable division depends ; and wherever there is a 
marked increase of intensity, due either to the character of the 
sound uttered, or to the force of utterance, we have a new 
syllable. 

§ 138. Syllables without Yowels. Syllables can be 
formed without any vowel, for some consonants are much more 
sonorous than others. We can hear such sounds as sh and 
the combination pst very distinctly; and in English, as we 
have already observed, a prolonged m, n or 1 can form a 
syllable without the aid of any vowel, as in schism, reasons, 
troubled (sizm', rizn'z, trcebl'd). 

§ 139. Word Division. The division of syllables is gener- 
ally, but not always, made to correspond with the word division. 
Dr. Sweet observes that we distinguish a name and a try from 
an aim and at Bye by the syllable division, that is, by making 



§ 140.] Syllable Division. 81 

the stress begin on the first sound of the second word. Other- 
wise the phrases would sound exactly alike. He shows also 
how in some cases the word and syllable division do not corre- 
spond, e.g., in not at 61, where the syllable division is a-tol, a 
new stress beginning on the t of at. 

§ 140. Rules for Syllable Division. In English these are 
as follows : — 

I. When a single consonant occurs between two vowels. 

(1) If the preceding vowel is accented, as in solid, ripar, 
weyting, the consonant belongs equally to the syllables before 
and after, so that we may divide the word as best suits our 
convenience. And it seems most convenient to join the con- 
sonant to the preceding vowel for two reasons ; first, because 
all the short accented vowels are difficult to pronounce without 
a vowel following them, so that the easiest division is foen-i, 
rseb-it, med-o', Yil-a, sol-id, wul-in, and so on ; and secondly, 
because by this means we can often separate a termination 
from the word to which it has been appended, as in fol-ing, 
stown-i, pleys-iz. 

(2) But if the preceding vowel is unaccented, the consonant 
belongs to the syllable which follows, thus : — ri-lent, pro'-sid, 
a-tend, laeb-a-ra-ta-ri. 

Between two weak vowels, however, a feeling of derivation 
sometimes overrides this rule, and in such a word as punisher 
the sh may be joined to the preceding syllable, or connected 
with it and the syllable that follows, but it is impossible to say 
pceni-shar ; so we divide thus : — poen-ish-ar. 

II. When tioo or more consonants occur between two vowels. 

(1) If the preceding vowel is short and accented, one or 
more consonants must close the syllable, for the short accented 
vowels never occur in open syllables. So we divide thus : — 
trosb-ling, maet-ras, ves-paz, sik-li, prog-ris, although the 
combinations bl, tr, sp, kl, gr, are often met with at the 
beginning of words. 

(2) But if the preceding vowel is unaccented, we put as 

6 



82 English Synthesis. [§ 141. 

many consonants as possible with the following syllable ; that 
is, as many as can be combined together at the beginning of 
a word. So we divide thus : — a-trsskt, a-kros, di-praiY, 
di-kleym, o'-blik, pro'-gresiy, in-tens, in-herit, in-tru'd, 
ig-zsekt, kan-sil, kam-praiz. 

(3) And if the preceding vowel is long and accented, we 
do the same, dividing thus : — stey-bling, yey-grant, zi-bra, 
lan-dri, sim-stres. 

Exceptions to the above rules. 

When a group of consonants begins with s, the s belongs to 
the preceding syllable. So we divide dis-koerij, dis-paiz 
mis-teyk, beys-mant, mas-tar, klas-ping, although sk, sp, 
st, sm, sp are combinations which occur at the beginning of 
words. 

The compounds ch = t + sh and j = d + zh are not 
divided in syllable division, but must be reckoned as one con- 
sonant, so we divide fech-ing, lej-ar = fetsh-ing, ledzh-ar. 
It is only in compound words, such as HOBt-shel, that the two 
elements of ch are separated, and j is never divided in this 
manner. 

tl and dl can be combined at the beginning of a syllable, 
though not at the beginning of a word. We divide thus : — 
disan-tli, prezan-tli, di-said-i-dli, faun-dling. 

The above rules do not apply to compound words, which 
are divided according to their component parts. 

Intonation. 

§ 141. The chief distinction between the use of the voice in 
speaking and in singing is, that whilst in singing it is sustained 
for a time at the same pitch, in speaking it is continually rising 
and falling. And not only do single syllables rise and fall, but 
we frequently hear a rise succeeded by a fall on the same 
syllable, or the opposite, that is, a syllable falling and then 
rising again. 

The intervals through which the voice rises and falls in 



§§ 142, 143.] Intonation. 83 

speaking are however very difficult to ascertain accurately, nor 
has any sort of notation been invented which can adequately 
express them, so that the acquisition of good intonation, which 
is of high importance in reading and speaking, must depend 
more on the feeling and taste of the speaker, and on his oppor- 
tunities of observing and imitating good models, than on any 
systematic instruction. It may suffice now to state two rules 
which govern English musical intonation, and which demand 
our attention the more because they do not prevail in French. 

(1) Syllables which are accented rise in pitch. 

(2) In interrogative sentences the voice rises at the end, 
but all other sentences have a fall at the close. 

§ 142. Key. The key in which speakers pitch their utter- 
ances depends partly on their vocal organs, men naturally using 
a lower key than women and children, and great differences 
being observable between individuals of the same age and sex. 
Something also depends on the speaker's frame of mind. Joy, 
or any great excitement, naturally leads to the use of a higher 
key than usual. 

§ 143. Pitch of the Yowels. Each of the vowels has a 
pitch natural to itself, and the relative pitch of the vowels has 
been carefully examined by Dr. Trautmann. I regret that I 
am not able to verify his conclusions, but it seems worth while 
to quote them. 

His system is best exemplified by the French vowels, as in 
tout, drole, homme, pdte, patte, pres, ete, fini, peur, peu (peu), 
pu, and is as follows : — 



j — J — p 



-e>- 



-&- 



-&- 



-P- £: t= 



ou 6 o a a & 6 i 

eu eu u 

It will be seen that the vowels thus form the chord of the 
dominant seventh. 



84 English Synthesis. [§§ 144, 145. 

Three other vowels in Dr. Trautmann's scheme are not 
of any practical importance. One of them is often heard in 
Hanover, but the other two are not known in any language. 

Variable Words. 

§ 144. In the attempt to spell the English language phon- 
etically, we are met by a serious difficulty arising from the fact 
that a large number of words are pronounced in different ways. 
We have (1) those which are pronounced differently by different 
well-educated people, and (2) those which are pronounced 
differently by the same persons under different circumstances. 

The first class of words need not trouble us much. At 
present we have, it is true, no standard pronunciation, but 
when a considerable number of well-educated people have given 
some attention to phonetics and are able to put down their 
pronunciation on paper, it may be hoped that we shall arrive 
at a consensus of opinion in the matter, and find out what 
pronunciation is most general among cultivated English people, 
and fix our standard accordingly. 

The following examples of words of this class are taken from 
a paper drawn up for the English Spelling Reform Association 
by the late Mr. Evans. They are given first in ordinary spell- 
ing, and then according to my own pronunciation. 

§ 145. Accented Vowel Sounds. 

(1) a or ae. Path, pass, past, cask, grafting, command, 
advance, stanching, answer, half, laugh, staff, after, laughter. 

Path, pas, past, and with a in every case. 

(2) a or 6. Daunt, haunt, haunch, launch, gauntlet, 
laundress. 

Dont, hont, hanch, lanch, gantlit, landris. 

(3) 6 or o. Often, costing, soften, malt, salt, falter, paltry. 
Ofn' 5 kosting, sofn', molt, solt, foltar, poltri. 

(4) aa or a. Parse, arms, carves. (Cp. pass, alms, calves, 
and for the diphthong aa, see § 114.) 

Paz, amz, kayz. 



§§ 146-148.] Variable Words. 85 

(5) 6a or 6. Lord, sort, stork. (Cp. laud, sought, stalk.) 
L6d, sot, stok. 

(6) owa, 6a or 6. Wore, pour, worn, poured, boarder. 
Woar, poar, won, pod, bodar. See §§ 111-114. 

(7) yu or u. Lute, lucent, luminous, salute. 
Lyiit, lyusant, lyuminas, salyut. 

§ 146. Unaccented Yowel Sounds. 

(8) 6 or o. Austerity, auxiliary, already. 
Osteriti, ogzilyari, dlredi. 

(9) i or a. Satirize, heresy. 
Ssetoraiz, herisi. 

(10) ai or i. Civilization, authorization, equalization. 
Siyila^zeyshan, otharaizeyshan, ikwalaizeyshan. 

§ 147. Consonants. 

(11) ty or ch. Nature, fortune, question, furniture, for- 
feiture, investiture, fustian, celestial. 

Neyc/tar, foc/ian, kwesc/ian, foenic/tar, fofic/tar, investi- 
c/^ar, foes fa/an, silesfo/al. 

(12) dy or j. Cordial, guardian, educate. 
Kotfo/al, ga%an, e^ukeyt. 

(13) sy or sh. Issue, sensual. 
Isyxi, sens/^wal. 

(14) zy or zh. Casual, visual. 
Ksez/w/wal, Yizywal. 

(15) ch or sh. Bench, milch, venture. 
Bench, milsh, venc/tar. 

(16) j or zh. Fringe, bulge. 
Friny, boelj. 

§ 148. We come next to the second class of variable words, 
namely, those which vary in the speech of the same person, (1) 
according to their connexion in the sentence, or (2) on different 
occasions, i.e., as he may be (a) speaking rapidly and familiarly, 
or (b) speaking slowly and distinctly in addressing a large num- 
ber of people, or (c) singing. The pronunciation of singers will 



86 English Synthesis. §§ 149, 150. 

not be discussed here, but the words which vary in speaking 
are so numerous and occur so frequently that they require to be 
considered in detail. 

Nearly all these variable words may be arranged in four 
groups, thus : — 

(1) Words ending in r. 

(2) Weak words, i.e., those which may occupy a subordinate 
place in the sentence and so have no accent. 

(3) Words where the weak syllables vary. 

(4) Words which may have a syllable more or less. 

A few words such as again (ageyn, agen) do not fall under 
any of the preceding groups. 

§ 149. Words ending in r. We have already seen that all 
words ending in r have two forms, the r not being heard unless 
a vowel follows in the next word, and that in words which 
have the diphthongs ea and oa the a sometimes disappears, 
§§ 45-59, 68. 

§ 150. Weak Words. A variation in one of these weak 
words, namely, an, is recognised in our ordinary spelling, for 
we write a or an according as a consonant or a vowel follows 
in the next word; but the variations which we do not thus 
indicate are very numerous indeed. For where words occupy 
a subordinate place in a sentence and consequently have no 
accent, clear vowels generally become obscure, or they disappear 
altogether, and consonants are very often dropped. And, as a 
rule, this is not due to slovenly speaking, but is a necessity of 
the case. To pronounce such words always in their emphatic 
forms would be very strange and unnatural, and quite contrary 
to the genius of our language. In fact no Englishman could do 
it, however carefully he might aim at correctness and precision 
in his speech. 

For example, the word and has four forms, used by every- 
body, and all recognised in the Oxford Dictionary. When we 
make a pause after it, we pronounce it (1) send, to rhyme with 
hand (foaend), but the two forms most frequently used are (2) 



§ 150.] 



Variable Words. 



87 



and, like and in husband (hoezband), (3) an, like an in organ 
(ogan) ; as in pen and ink (and), go and see (an), whilst in 
some familiar phrases, as in bread and butter, it is invariably 
weakened to (4) n\ 

The d need not disappear before every consonant, but only 
before those with which it could not combine at the beginning 
of a word. We can use the form and in strong and well, cp. 
dwell, cold and raw, cp. draio, and so on, but in familiar speech 
no one adheres to this rule, and even in public reading and 
speaking one may often hear the d dropped before a vowel. 

And again, the has two forms, recognised by singers, though 
not distinguished in ordinary spelling. Before a vowel it is 
dhi, and before a consonant dha. We say dhi sepP, dhi orinj, 
dha melan, dha pear. 

The following list, based upon, but not quite identical with, 
the list in Dr. Sweet's Elementarbuch, contains nearly all those 
words which have weak forms. The emphatic forms of a, an, 
the (ey, sen, dhi), are never heard unless we purposely isolate 
them, as these words always occupy a subordinate place and 
are closely connected with the noun which follows. 





Emphatic. 


Weak. 




Emphatic. 


Weak. 


a or an 


ey, sen 


a, an 


from 


from 


fram 


am 


83m 


am, m 


had 


haed 


had, ad, d 


and 


eend 


and, an, n' 


has 


haez 


naz, az, z 


are 


ar, a 


ar, a 


have 


haeY 


hav, a¥, y 


as 


88Z 


az, z 


he 


hi 


hi, i, i 


at 


set 


at 


her 


hoer 


har, ar, a 


be 


bi 


bi 


him 


him 


im 


been 


bin 


bin 


his 


hiz 


iz 


can 


keen 


kan, kn' 


is 


iz 


z, s 


could 


kud 


kad 


madam 


msedam, 


mam, m' 


do 


du 


du, da, d 




meam 




does 


d03Z 


daz 


me 


mi 


mi 


for 


for, to 


for, far, fa 


must 


moest 


mast, mas 




(rarely f< 


>a) 


my 


mai 


mai, mi 



88 



English Synthesis. 



[§§ 151, 152. 





Emphatic. 


Weak. 




Emphatic. 


Weak. 


of 


OY 


av 


them 


dhem 


dham, 


or 


or, o 


or, ar, a 






dhni' 




(rarely 6a) 


through 


thru 


thru 


nor 


nor, no 


nor, nar, 


till 


til 


tl 




(rarely noa) na 


to 


tu 


tu, ta 


not 


not 


n't 


us 


03S 


as, s 


saint 


seynt 


sint, sin, sn 


zoas 


woz 


waz 


shall 


sheal 


shal, shl' 


we 


wi 


wi 


she 


shi 


shi, sh 


ivere 


woer, woe war, wa 


should 


shud 


shad, shd 




(rarely wer, 


sir 


soer, soe 


sar, sa 




wea) 




some 


seem 


sam 


who 


hu 


hu 


such 


seech 


sach 


will 


wil 


wl, al, 1 


than 


dhsen 


dhan 


would 


wud 


wad, ad, d 


that 


dhset 


dhat, dht 


you 


yu 


yu, ya 


the 


dhi 


dhi, dha 


your 


yor, yd 


yar, ya, 


their \ 
there) 


dhea, dher dhar, dha 


(rarely yuar, 
yua, yoa 


yor 

) 



§ 151. Words where the Weak Syllables vary. The 

principal variations which take place in weak syllables are 
these : — 

(1) The vowels se, 0, 0', oe, 6 are liable to be reduced to a. 

(2) e is reduced to i, and ey becomes e or i. 

(3) a before n or 1, and u before 1, disappear, and the n or 1 
becomes syllabic, so that the syllable is not lost. 

8 152. Yowels reduced to a. Exx. : — 



se ascend 


aasend 


or asend 


assent 


aesent 


„ asent 


admit 


sedmit 


,, admit 


abstain 


sebsteyn 


,, absteyn 


confirm 


konfoem 


,, kanfoem 


confound 


konfaund 


„ kanfaund 



153-155.] 



Variable Words. 



89 



oe 



polite 
provision 

perform 
surprise 
eastern 
withered 

forgive 
forget 



po'lait 
pro'Yizhan 

poefd'm 
soepraiz 
istoen 
widhoed 

fogiY 
fdget 



or 



§ 153. Yowels reduced to i or e. 

or 



ey 



excess 

except 

essential 

kindness 

countless 

separate (adj.) 

violet 

yesterday 

holiday 

candidate 

advocate 

always 



ekses 

eksept 

esenshal 

kaindnes 

kauntles 

separet 

vaialet 

yestadey 

holidey 

ksendideyt 

aedYo'keyt 

olweyz 



§ 154. Syllabic n or 1. Exx. 



an 



al 



ul 



pardon 
fallen 

marshal 
practical 

useful 
playful 
beautiful 
wonderfully 



padan 
folan 
mashal 
prsektikal 

yusful 
pleyful 
byutiful 
woendafuli 



or 



palait 
praYizhan 

pafom 
sapraiz 
istan 
widhad 

fagiY 
faget 

Exx. : — 

ikses 

iksept 

isenshal 

kaindnis 

kauntlis 

separit 

Yaialit 

yestadi 

holidi 

kssndidet or ksendidit 

sedYo'ket ,, sedYo^it 

olwez „ olwiz 

padn' 
fdln' 
mashP 
prsektikP 

yusfl' 
pleyfl' 
byutifT 
woendafl'i 



§ 155. In most of these words, and in others which resemble 
them, the clear pronunciation of the unaccented vowels is very 
rare, and is hardly ever heard except in slow public reading or 



90 English Synthesis. [§ 156. 

speaking. The doubtful vowels in initial syllables are scarcely 
ever pronounced clearly except when the words in which they 
occur stand at the beginning of a sentence, after a pause. 

As regards the exx. of e, it should be remembered that 
unaccented i is often intermediate between e and i, and the 
attempt to pronounce e in unaccented syllables generally results 
in this intermediate sound, clear unaccented e, as in insect, 
being very rare. 

It is noticeable that when we compare dissyllables whose 
first syllable is unaccented and variable with corresponding 
forms having more than two syllables, we generally find that, 
in these longer forms, the vowel of the first syllable is always 
obscure. We sometimes, though very rarely, pronounce 
esdmit, konfoem, poefom, foget, ekses, but we always say 
admishan, kanfoeming, pafomans, iksesiy, fagetful, and so 
on. 

§ 156. Y/ords which may have a Syllable more or less. 
It is surprising how numerous these words are. In estimating 
the number of syllables in a word, the spelling rather than the 
sound is generally taken for a guide, but in speaking the real 
number of syllables is often more or less than the conventional 
reckoning. It frequently depends on the position of the word 
or the rhythm of the sentence. 

In poetry we find a few of these variations indicated by the 
spelling, e.g., 't and 's for it and is, when they are not to be 
pronounced as separate syllables, and ev'n, falln', know'st, seest, 
for even, fallen, hnowest, seest. 

In writing verse, some confusion arises from the artificial 
reckoning of syllables according to spelling rather than accord- 
ing to sound. For instance, hour and fire have as much claim 
to be called dissyllables as power and higher, and it is quite 
according to rule to make hour rhyme with power, and fire with 
higher, and so on. But when such words are not at the end of 
a line, a distinction is made between them, and hour and fire 
are invariably treated as monosyllables. So too chasm may not 



§ 157.] 



Variable Words. 



91 



be reckoned as two syllables, though it is really pronounced so, 
just as distinctly as heaven. 

§ 157. Variable words having a syllable more or less may 
be classed as follows : — 

(1) Weak words, which may be reduced to consonants and 
cease to be syllables. See above, §§ 150, 151. 

(2) Words ending in iar, uar, aiar, auar or yuar, as : — 

hire 



sere 
seer 



} 



poor 
brewer 



siar 

puar 
bruar 



lhaiar 

higher) 



dyer~\ 
dire ) 



daiar 



\a Iflanar 

flower) 

pure pyuar 
newer nyuar 

The rule for these is that they are pronounced as two 
syllables, unless they happen to be followed by a vowel in the 
next word, causing the r to be trilled; in which case the a 
often ceases to be a syllable, and is reduced to a mere vowel- 
glide. In the hour of trial, the power of steam, hour and power 
can be pronounced as monosyllables, but in this very hour, 
power to resist, or in the plural forms hours, powers, they must 
be pronounced as dissyllables. 

(3) Words in which n', 1' or ar is followed by an unaccented 
vowel, such as : — 



n 7 



ar 



lessening 
prisoner 

traveller 

memory 

loandering 

reverence 



lesn'ing or lesning 
prizn'ar ,, priznar 



trsevl'ar 

memari 

wondaring 

revarans 



trsevlar 

memri 

wondring 

reyrans 



It will be seen by these examples that n' may be reduced 
to n, P to 1 and ar to r. 

This uncertainty as to the use of ar or r gives rise to the 
common mistakes laibarari, Henari, cembarela, for laibrari, 
Henri, cemforela. 

(4) Words where in like manner i, u, o' or yu is followed 



92 



English Synthesis. 



[§ 158. 



by an unaccented vowel, and may be reduced thus : — i to y, 
u to w, o' to w, and yu to yw. Exx. : — 



u 

0' 

yu 



suppliant 
glorious 
period 
lovelier 

influence 

following 

individual 

tempestuous 

casuistry 



scepliant 
glorias 
piariad 
lcBYliar 

influans 

folo'ing 

individyual 

tempestyuas 

ksezyuistri 



or soaplyant 

„ gloryas 

„ piaryad 

„ loeylyar 

„ inflwans 

„ folwing 

,, individywal 

„ tempestywas 

„ kaezywistri 



It must, however, be acknowledged, as regards this last class of words, 
that some readers of poetry would retain the full number of syllables in 
spite of the metre. It is an open question whether we are to consider 
that a syllable is elided, or that the poet has chosen to vary his metre by 
occasionally introducing a superfluous syllable. It is unquestionable that 
the best poets do at times deliberately introduce extra syllables, so the 
reader is free to follow his own taste in this matter. 

We often find in poetry that words, ending in syllabic n' are written 
thus : — giv'n, ev'n ; and the is written th' as if to indicate that a syllable 
is to be elided. But in prose we should never drop these syllables, nor 
does it seem possible to do so in poetry, except in those instances where 
n' happens to be followed by a vowel in the next word, where we could 
reduce it to n. 

Spelling of Variable Words. 

§ 158. The rules followed in this work as to the spelling of 
variable words are these : — 

(1) Words variously pronounced by different people are 
spelt in accordance with my own pronunciation. 

(2) Words pronounced differently by the same persons 
under different circumstances have a fixed spelling. 

(a) Words ending in r have the r always written. 

(6) Weak words are written in their emphatic forms. 

(c) Words in which the weak syllables vary, or where there 



§ 159.] Spelling of Variable Words. 93 

may be a syllable more or less, are written to represent the 
colloquial usage of a careful speaker. 

(3) In the selections of poetry, the rule of having a fixed 
spelling for variable words has been set aside where it was 
requisite to do so, in order to indicate the number of syllables 
required by the rhythm. 

In these cases, and in a few instances when the pronuncia- 
tion seems doubtful, alternative forms are given at the foot of 
the page. 

§ 159. Exceptions to the above rules : — 

(1) Words beginning with wh and those ending with oar 
are not spelt as I usually pronounce them. My pronunciation 
of such words is variable, and I seldom pronounce wh and oar, 
generally substituting w and or, so that when is = wen and 
oar is = or, except where the words containing them are 
specially emphasised. But the forms in wh and oar have 
been used throughout. 

(2) The following words are written in their weak forms : — 



a is wrn 


bten a 


an ,, 


an 


and „ 


and 


the ,, 


dhi or dha 


that (rel. or conj.) ,, 


dhat 


to (unstressed) ,, 


tu 



The demonstrative that is written dhaet. It is convenient 
to be able to distinguish dhat and dhaet in such sentences as 
I believe that that (dhat dhaet) is true. 

And to, when stressed, as in to and fro, is written tu, like 
the words too and two. 

These spellings should also be noted : — 



or is wntte 


m or 


oar, ore are wntt< 


3n oar 


nor „ 


nor 


the Nore „ 


Noar 


for 


for 


four, fore „ 


foar 


your „ 


yor 


yore 


yoar 



94 English Synthesis. [§ 159. 

The longer forms of or, nor and for (6a, noa, foa) are 
occasionally heard when speakers pause upon these words, but 
this is quite exceptional, as for seldom, and or and nor never, 
are found at the end of a sentence. These long forms never 
occur in my own pronunciation. 



V. 

LOAN WOKDS USED IN ENGLISH. 

§ 160. The right pronunciation of loan words from French 
and other languages is a very perplexing question. Many of 
them are pronounced in various ways, and it is by no means 
easy to decide what pronunciation should be recommended, and 
whether those who are able to pronounce the language from 
which they are borrowed should use a foreign or an anglicized 
pronunciation. On the whole, it seems best to anglicize them, 
as far as custom will permit, for many foreign words, especially 
French ones, require a great effort to pronounce them in the 
foreign fashion when they occur in the middle of an English 
sentence, even on the part of those who know them well, and 
they must be miserably mispronounced by the average English- 
man. Moreover the French pronunciation of a French word, 
in such a position, far from being appreciated by Frenchmen, 
is particularly offensive to them. 

There are, however, a few foreign sounds which all should 
try to learn, and which can be very easily acquired in child- 
hood. For instance, the use of English ong as in song, in 
the Fr. bonbon, bdton, etc., is not tolerated amongst well 
educated people, who are expected to know the French nasal 
vowel on. 

Special Symbols Required. 

§ 161. The minimum number of foreign sounds for which 
fresh symbols are required seems to be nine, as follows : — 

(95) 



96 Loan Words used in English. [§ 161. 



Fr. Germ. 


Fr. 


Germ, 


a as in pktte Mknn 


aw as in £>an 


x as in acn 


6 ,, £>eu schon 


sen ,, pm 


c „ iCB. 


ii ,, pu Kijhn 


on ,, poxt 

caw ,, un 





a serves for two sounds which are not identical, short Fr. a 
in pktte, and short German a in Mknn. 

a, is used to represent (1) the Fr. a in pAte, (2) the long Fr. 
a in menkge, and (3) the long Germ, a in Ikrnn. 

a is used for the short vowels (1) e in Fr. Ze, and (2) e in 
Germ. Gab&. 

oe represents French eu in £>Eur. 

ny is used for French n in viGxette. 

Generally speaking, the length of the Fr. vowel in not indi- 
cated. When we have in English pairs of narrow and wide 
vowels, such as those in gate, get (ey, e), feet, fit (i, i), fool, 
full (u, u), the symbol for the long narrow vowel is more 
suitable for the corresponding short narrow vowel in French 
than the symbols e, i, u would be, because these would mis- 
lead the English people by suggesting that the vowels ought 
to be wide, and more open than they really are. So ey, i and 
u are used for the vowels in EfcEJ, fins, tout. 

Many English people fail to pronounce the French nasal 
vowel aw, and use on instead, as in encore, carte blanche, pro- 
nounced by them owkor, kartblowsh. 

It is not necessary to provide symbols for the German 
glottal stop, nor for the French voiceless liquids. 

In the following list, final r is put in brackets in words 
which are thoroughly anglicized, to show that it is silent unless 
a vowel follows in the next word. When r is not bracketed, it 
should be trilled, though it requires some effort to do so when 
it is final, or followed by a consonant, as in 

abattoir, abatwar apercu, apersii 

belles lettres, bel letr arpeggio, arpejyo' 



§ 162.] The Most Necessary Foreign Sounds. 97 

The Most Necessaey Fokeign Sounds. 

§ 162. Hints for Learning the Most Necessary Foreign 
Sounds. The formation of the sounds represented by these 
nine symbols is explained in the French and German sections 
of this book. But as it is a considerable undertaking to learn 
all these foreign sounds, it may be worth while to note that 
some occur much more frequently, and are much more necessary 
than others. There are only three foreign sounds which occur 
very frequently, namely a, aw, and on, and one tolerably often, 
namely u, making four in all. And, as already observed, most 
English people pronounce aw and on alike, making them both 
equal on. This seems the more excusable, as I am informed, 
on the authority of M. Passy, that young children in Paris are 
doing the same, and it seems likely that the next generation of 
Parisians will drop aw altogether. This leaves then practically 
a minimum of three foreign sounds to be learnt — a, on and ii. • 

Concerning a I may observe that, although we have many 
more French than German loan words, the German a in Mann 
is decidedly easier than the French a in patte, which is inter- 
mediate between the English sounds in father and man, and 
this German sound also serves to represent a in Italian much 
better than the French patte vowel. So it is best for those who 
cannot hope to master both vowels to content themselves with 
the German short a. It is not at all difficult to acquire this 
sound. All that is necessary is to shorten the vowel in 
father. 

It is a curious fact that this short German a may be heard in two 
genuine English words in the mouths of children in the middle and lower 
classes, namely in Mamma and Papa, where they introduce it into both 
syllables, wrongly accenting the first of them. They ought to pronounce 
Mama, Papa, but they actually do pronounce Mama, Papa. 

The three most necessary foreign sounds are explained 
further on in this volume as follows : — a, Fr. pktte, § 204 ; 
Germ. Mknn, § 251 ; on, Fr. on, % 215 ; ii, Fr. pv, §§ 213 f. 

7 



98 



Loan Words used in English. 



[§ 163. 



For the remaining foreign sounds the references are : — 6, 
Fr. £>eu, §§ 213 f. ; an, Fr. _pAN ; sen, Fr. pm ; and oen, Fr. un, 
§ 215 ; x, Germ. acH, and c, Germ. icH, §§ 242 f. 



§ 163. List of 

abandon, aba/ndon. 

abatis, aba'ti. 

abattoir, aba'twar. 

abbe, abey. 

ab initio, seb inishio'. 

accelerando, sekselirse'ndo'. 

acciacatura, achakatu'ra. 

accolade, seko'leyd, ako'la'd. 

accoucheur, akushoer. 

accoucheuse, akushoez. 

adagio, adajyo'. 

ad hominem, sed hominem. 

adieu, adyu. 

ad infinitum, sed infinaitam. 

ad interim, sed intarim. 

ad libitum, sed libitam. 

ad nauseam, sed nosissm. 

ad valorem, sed Yalorem. 

cegis, ijis. 

cegrotat, igrowtset. 

JEneid, Ini'id, 1'niid. 

a fortiori, ey foshio'rai. 

agape, segapi. 

agio, sejio', eyjio'. 

Agnus Dei, segnas diai, agnus 

deyi. 
aide-de-camp, eydakan. 
aiguille, eygwil. 



Loan Wokds. 

a la carte, a la kart. 

a la mode, selamowd, ala- 
mowd. 

alcalde, alka'ldey. 

alfresco, alfresko'. 

alga, pi. alga, selga, selji. 

alguazil, selgwazil. 

alibi, selibai. 

allegretto, aleygreto'. 

allegro, aleygro'. 

al segno, al seynyo'. 

alto, alto', selto'. 

alto-rilievo, alto' or selto' 
rilivo'. 

amateur, sematyu'a(r), some- 
times amatoer, sematoer or 
sematyua(r). 

Ameer, amia(r). 

amende honorable, ama'nd on- 
ora'bl. 

amour, amua(r). 

amour-propre, amur propr. 

amphora, semfara. 

anabasis, ansebasis. 

anacoluthon, senako'lyu'than. 

ancien regime, ansysen rey- 
zhim. 

andante, anda'ntey, sendse'nti. 



a, pktte, Mhnn, 6, £>eu, schon. ii, pv, Jcumi. an, £>an. 



163.] 



List of Loan Words. 



99 



anglice, senglisi. 
Anno Domini, seno' Dominai. 
ante meridiem, senti miridyem. 
a outrance, a utra^s. 
aperqu, ape'rsii. 
aphasia, afeyzya. 
Aphrodite, iEfro'daiti. 
a piacere, a piache'rey. 
aplomb, aplo'^. 
aposiopesis, aepo'saio'pi'sis. 
a posteriori, ey postiario'rai, 

-ri. 
applique, apli'key. 
appogiatura, apojatii'ra. 
appui, apwi. 
a priori, ey praio'rai. 
apropos, apropow. 
arc-boutant, arbu'taw. 
Areopagus, iEriopagas. 
arete, are't. 
argot, argo'. 
Aries, Eriiz. 
armada, am^yda. 
arpeggio, arpejyo'. 
arras, geras. 

arriere-pens&e, arye'r pawsey. 
arrondissement, aro'wiisma/ft. 
artiste, artist. 
asafcetida, sBsafetida. 
Ate, eyti. 
atelier, atelyey. 
atoll, atol, setol. 
attache, atashey 



auberge, owberzh. 

au courant, ow kuraw. 

aufait, ow fey. 

aujond, ow ton. 

au naturel, ow natiirel. 

au revoir, ow ravwar. 

auto-da-fs, oto'dafey. 

avalanche, sevalansh. 

av ant- courier , ava'nt or avae'n- 

kuri'a(r). 
ave, eyvi. 
ayah, aya. 
Baal, Beyal. 
baboo, babu. 
Bacchas, Bsskas. 
bacillus, basilas. 
bacterium, foaektiari'am. 
badinage, badinazh, bsedinej. 
bagatelle, bsegatel. 
bakshish, bsekshish. 
ballade, balad. 
ballet, baley. 
bambino, bambino'. 
banquette, basket. 
bardge, bareyzh. 
bas bleu, ba, bio. 
bashi-bazouh, bseshibazu'k. 
basso-rilievo, baso-rili'Yo'. 
basta, basta. 
Bastille, Basti'l. 
bateau, bato'. 
baton, bato%, b set an. 
battue, batii. 



&n, pm. on, poM. otn, un. x, <xch. c, *ch. 



100 



Loan Words used in English. 



[§ 163. 



bavardage, baYardazh. 
bdellium, delyam. 
beau garcon, bow garso^. 
beau-ideal, bowaidi'al. 
bcau-monde, bo'mo'^d. 
bel-esprit, bel espri. 
belles-lettres, bel letr. 
benedicite, benidaisiti. 
ben trovato, ben tro'Yato'. 
bergfall, berkfal, boegfol. 
bete noire, beyt nwar. 
betise, beytiz. 
bezique, beyzi'k. 
bienseance, byse^seya^zs. 
bienveillance, byavnreylyEUs. 
big a, baiga. 
bijou, bizhu. 
bijouterie, bizhu'tari. 
billet-doux, bileydu'. 
bizarre, biza'r. 
bizarrerie, biza'rari. 
bise, biz. 
blague, blag. 
blancmange, blama'nzh, bla- 

monzh. 
blase, blazey. 
blonde, blond. 
Boanerges, Bowanoejiz. 
bodega, bo'diga. 
Boer, Bua(r). 
bolus, bowlas. 
bolero, bo'lero'. 
bond fide, bowna faidi. 



bon-bon, hbn obn. 

bonbonniere, bo«bonye'a(r). 

bon chretien, bo«-kreytyae>z. 

bonhomie, bonomi. 

bon mot, obn mow, pi. mowz. 

bonne, bon. 

bonne bouche, bon bush. 

bon-ton, bon ton. 

bon vivant, obn yiyeU. 

bon voyage, obn Ywaya'zh, 

bo^ Yoia'zh. 
Bootes, Bo'owtiz. 
boudoir, budwar. 
bougie, buzhi. 
boulevard, bulYar. 
bo u leversement, bulYer sma?; , 

bulYoesmant. 
bouquet, bnkey. 
bourgeois, burzhwa (but when 

meaning a size of printing 

type, pronounced boejois). 
bourgeoisie, burzhwazi. 
Bourse, Burs, Buas. 
bouts-rimes, bu rimey. 
bravura, braYU ra. 
bric-a-brac, brikabraek. 
brochure, broshtir. 
Brumaire, Brumer. 
brunette, brunet, brunet. 
brusque, briisk. 
brusquely, bruskli. 
brusqueness, brtisknis. 
brusquerie, bruskari. 



a, pxtte, Mawi. 6, i?Eu, schon. ti, pv, kvwi. an, jjas. 



§ 163.] 



List of Loan Words. 



101 



buffet, biifey, a refreshment 

bar. 
buffet, bcefit, a sideboard or a 

cupboard. 
bureau, byuaro', byurow, and 

when an office is meant, 

sometimes biirow. 
caballero, kabalye'ro'. 
cabaret, kabarey. 
cabbala, kaebala. 
cabriolet, kabrio'ley. 
cache, kash. 
cachet, kashey. 
cachucha, kachucha. 
cacique, kasik. 
cacoethes, kseko'i'thiz. 
cadenza, kadentsa. 
cadi, kadi, keydi. 
cadre, kadr. 
cafe, kafey. 

caftan, kafta'n, kseftan. 
caisson, keysan. 
camera obscura, kaemera ob- 

skyu'ara. 
camaraderie, kamara/dari. 
Campagna (the), Kampa'nya. 
campanile, kampaniley. 
Canaan, Keynan. 
canaille, kana'y. 
canard, kanar, kanad. 
canon, ksenyan. 
cantabile, kanta'biley. 
cantata, kanta'ta. 



canlatrice, kantatri'chey. 

cap-a-pie, kaepapi'. 

capriccio, kapricho'. 

capriccioso, kaprichowzo'. 

carafe, karaf. 

carbonari, karbo'na'ri. 

carillon, karilyon. 

carmagnole, karmanyol. 

carte-blanche, kart blawsh. 

carte-de-visit, kart da Yizi't. 

caryatid, pi. -ides, kaerise'tid, 
-idiz. 

casino, kasino'. 

catalogue raisonne, katalog 
reyzoney. 

catena, katina. 

cathedra, kathidra, kae'thidra 

cause celebre, kowz seleybr. 

causeuse, kowzoez. 

cavass, kayses. 

cavatina, kavati'na, kseva- 
ti'na. 

centime, sawti'm. 

cerise, seri'z. 

chaise-longue, sheyz long. 

chalet, shaley. 

chamois, shamwa; when lea- 
ther is meant, shsemi. 

chaperon, shaeparown, -on. 

char-a-banc, sharabaw. 

charge d'affaires, sharzhey 
dafe'r. 

charivari, shariYa'ri. 



sew, £>in. on, post, oen, un. x, acH. c, ^ch. 



102 



Loan Words used in English. 



[§ 163. 



chasse, shasey. 
chasseur, shasoer. 
chdteau, shato'. 
chatelaine, shataleyn. 
chef, shef. 

chef d'ozuvre, sheydoevr. 
chemise, shimi'z. 
chemisette, shemizet. 
chenille, shini'l. 
cheval-glass, shaYal glas. 
chevaux de /rise, shevo' da 

friz. 
chevrette, sheyret. 
chiaroscuro, kyaro'sku'ro*. 
chiffon, shifo^. 
chiffonier, shifani'a(r). 
chignon, shinyow. 
cicala, sika'la. 
cicerone, chicheyrowney, sisa- 

rowni. 
cicisbeism, chichisbi'izm'. 
cicisbeo, chichisbeyo'. 
ci-devant, sidayaw. 
cinquecento, chingkwichento' . 
clairvoyance, klerYwa'yaws, 

kleavoians. 
claque, klak. 
claqueur, klaeka(r). 
clientele, kliaratel, klaiantel. 
cloture, klowtiir. 
cobra de capello, kowbra da 

kapelo'. 
cognac, konyaek. 



cognoscenti, kono'shenti. 
collaborateur, kola'bo'ratoer, 

or spelt collaborator, kalae'- 

bareyta(r). 
colporteur, kolportoer. 
comme il faut, kom i fow. 
commode, kamowd. 
communique, komii'nikey. 
complaisant, kompleza'nt. 
compte rendu, kowt randii. 
con amore, kon amo'rey. 
concierge, kowsyerzh. 
concordat, kankodset. 
condottieri, kondotye'ri. 
confrere, kowfrer. 
conge d'elire, kowzhey d eyli'r. 
connoisseur, koneysoer. 
contre-temps, kowtrataw. 
conversazione, konYasaetsiow- 

ni. 
coquette, koket. 
cordon, kordow. 
corps diplomatique, kor di- 

plowma'tik. 
corsage, korsazh. 
corUge, korteyzh. 
corvee, kdrvey. 
costumier, kostyu'mya(r). 
coterie, kowtari. 
cotillon, ko'tilyan. 
couchant, kauchant. 
couleur de rose, kuloer da 

rowz. 



a, |JA^e, Mknn. 6, £>eu, schon. ii, pv, kvmi. §Ln, £>an. 



§ 163.] 



List of Loan Words. 



103 



coup de grace, ku da gras. 
coup de main, ku da msew. 
coup de soleil, ku da soley. 
coup d'etat, ku d eyta'. 
coup d'ceil, ku d oey. 
coupe, kupey. 
coupon, kupow. 
cofUe que cotlte, kut ka kut. 
crayon, kreyan. 
creche, kreysh. 
crescendo, kreshendo'. 
cretin, kritin. 
crevasse, kriYse's. 
crochet, krowshey. 
croquet, krowkey. 
cui bono, kai bowno'. 
cuisine, kwizi'n. 
cuisse, kwis. 
cul-de-sac, kill da sak. 

Culturkampf, kulturkampf. 
cure, kiirey. 

Czar, Za(r). 

Czarina, Zari'na. 

Czarewitch, -owitz, Zaravich, 
-Yits. 

Czech, Ghek. 

dais, deyis. 

danseuse, dawsoez. 

Dauphin, dofin. 

debonair, debane'a(r). 

debris, debri. 

debut, deybii. 

debutant, -ante, debiitaw, -awt. 



dejeuner a la fourchette, dey- 

zhoeney a la furshet. 
dementi, deyma'wti. 
denotement, deynu'maw. 
de novo, da iiowyo'. 
depot, depo'. 
de rigueur, da rigoer. 
deshabille, desabil. 
detour, detua(r). 
de trop, da trow. 
devoir, deYwar. 
dies non, daiiz non. 
Lieu et mon droit, Dyd ey mow 

drwa. 
dilettante, dilitsa'nti. 
distrait, distrey. 
divan, diYse'n. 
Dives, DaiYiz. 
doctrinaire, doktrine'a(r). 
dolce far niente, dolchey far 

nientey. 
donna, dona. 
douane, dua'n. 
double entendre, dubl' aw- 

ta'ndr. 
douceur, dusoer. 
eau de Cologne, ow da Ka- 

lown. 
eau-de-vie, ow da yi. 
ecarte, eyka'rtey. 
e'claircissement, eykle'rsismaw. 
6clat, eykla'. 
edelweiss, eydalYais. 



sew, £>in. on, pont. oew, un. x, acn. c, icn. 



104 



Loan Words used in English. 



[§ 163. 



edition de luxe, eydi'syo^ da 

liiks. 
Effendi, Efendi. 
Eiffel, aifl\ 
Eisteddfodd, aistefod. 
elan, eylk'?i. 
elite, eyli't. 
eloge, eylowzh. 
embarras de richesse, amba'ra 

da rishes. 
embonpoint, a^bo^pwae??. 
embouchure, a^bu'shiir. 
emeute, eymoet, imyu't. 
employe, a?£plwa'yey, em- 

ploiey. 
empressement, a^presma?i. 
en bloc, kn blok. 
enccenia, ensi'nya. 
enceinte, ansse'?zt. 
encore, gUko'r. 
en famille, kn fami'l. 
enfant perdu, knikn perdu. 
enfant terrible, knikn teribl. 
en masse, kn mas. 
ennui, awnwi'. 
en regie, kn reygl. 
en route, kn rut. 
ensemble, awsa'nbl. 
entende cordiale, kntknt kord- 

yal. 
entourage, kntu'rkzh. 
en tout cas, kn tu ka. 
entree, a?itrey. 



entremets, a?ztramey. 

entre nous, a^tra nu. 

envelope, anvilowp, envilowp. 

epergne, epoen. 

esclandre, esklandr. 

escritoire, eskritwar. 

espieglerie, espyeyglari. 

espionage, espyonazh. 

esprit de corps, espri da kor. 

etablissement, eyta'blisma^. 

etagere, etazhe'r. 

etiquette, etiket. 

exigeant, -te, egzizha'«, -k'nt. 
\ ex-officio, eks ofishyo'. 
I ex parte, eks pati. 
| expose, ekspo'zey. 

extempore, ekstempari. 

facade, fasa'd. 

facile princeps, fsesili prin- 

seps. 
facon de parler, faso?* da 

parley. 
faience, faians. 
faineant, feyneysU. 
fait accompli, feyt ako'^pli. 
fakir, faekia(r). 
fantasia, faenteyzha. 
fantoccini, feento'chi'ni. 
farceur, farsoer. 
faubourg, fowbur. 
faute de mieux, fowt da myo. 
fauteuil, fowtoel. 
faux pas, fow pa. 



a, p\tte, M&nn. o, _^eu, schon. ii, pv, k\jun. kn, _^an. 



163.] 



List of Loan Words. 



105 



felo de se, felo' di si. 
femme de chambre, fam 

shanbr. 
fete, feyt. 

feu de joie, fo da zhwa. 
fiacre, fiakr. 
-fiance, -ee, f iansey. 
fiasco, fia'sko*. 
jfo/m, f ishti. 
finale, fina'li. 
-finesse, fines. 
jfrm, firn. 
flambeau, flaembo'. 
flamboyant, flaamboiyant. 
fleche, fleysh. 
fleur de lis, floer da li. 
forte, fortey. 
fortissimo, forti'simo'. 
fracas, fraka. 
franc, frasngk. 
Frau, Frau. 
Fraulein, Froilain. 
gala, gala. 
gargon, garson. 
gasconade, gaeskaneyd. 
gauche, gowsh. 
gaucherie, gowshari. 
Gemini, Jeminai. 
gendarme, zhawda'rm. 
genre, zhanr. 
giaour, jaua(r). 
glace, glasey. 
glacier, glassy a(r). 



da 



glacis, glasi. 

glissade, glisa'd. 

goitre, goita(r). 

gramme, gram, graem. 

grande vitesse, grand Yites. 

groschen, groshan. 

guillotine, gilyo'ti'n. 

guipure, gipu'r. 

habitue, abi'twey. 

harem, herem. 

hauteur, howtoer. 

haut ton, how ton. 

Hebe, Hibi. 

Kerr, Her. 

hiatus, haieytas. 

Hinterland, Hintarlant. 

honi soit qui mat y pense, honi 

swa ki mal i pans. 
hors de combat, ho da komba. 
hotel de ville, owtel da vil. 
Huguenots, Hyuganots. 
hyperbole, haipoebali. 
ich dien, ic din. 
imbroglio, imbrowlyo'. 
impasse, ae/ipas. 
impromptu, impromptyu. 
incognito, inkognito'. 
insouciance, aensu'sians. 
jager, yeygar. 
jalousie, zhaluzi. 
jardiniere, zhardinyer. 
je ne sais quoi, zha na sey 

kwa. 



een, pm. on, post, oen, un. x, o.ch. c, *ch. 



106 



Loan Words used in English. 



[§ 163. 



jet d'eau, zhey d ow. 

jeu d' esprit, zho d espri'. 

journal, zhurnal. 

jujube, zhuzhub. 

Kaiser, Kaiza(r). 

khan, kan. 

Khedive, Keydi'Y. 

kindergarten, kindagatn'. 

kiosk, kiosk. 

kirschwasser, kirshvasar. 

kraal, kral. 

kreutzer, kroitsar. 

kyrie, kirii. 

Koran, Kora'n, Korse'n, Ko- 
ran. 

laissez faire, lesey fer. 

Lama, Lama. 

landsturm, landshturm. 

landwehr, landYer. 

Laocoon, Leyoko'on. 

lapis lazuli, leypis lsezyulai. 

lapsus lingua, laepsas linggwi. 

lares, leriz. 

Lateran, Lsetaran. 

latrine, latrin. 

lazzaroni, latsarowni. 

legerdemain, lejadameyn. 

levee, leYi. 

lingua franca, linggwa fraeng- 
ka. 

liqueur, likoer. 

UtUrateur, liteyratoer. 

litre, lita(r). 



locale, lo'kal. 

locum tenens, lowkam tinenz. 

Louvre {the), Luyr. 

louvre (a), luYa(r). 

Madame, Madam. 

Mademoiselle, Madmwazel. 

Madonna, Madona. 

Magna Gharta, Maegna Kata. 

maison de sante, meyzow da 

santey. 
maitre d'hotel, meytr d owtel. 
mal a propos, mal a propow. 
marguerite, margari't. 
marionette, maeri'anet. 
mark (Germ, coin), mak. 
Marseillaise, Maselyeyz. 
massage, masazh. 
maUriel, materiel. 
matinee musicale, matiney 

miizikal. 
mauvaise honte, moveyz ont. 
mediocre, medio wka(r). 
meerschaum, miasham. 
melee, meyley. 
menage, menazh. 
menagerie, mena'zhari. 
menu, menii, menyu. 
mesalliance, meyzalians. 
messieurs, meshaz. 
metayer, meteyey. 
metempsychosis, metempsi- 

kowzis. 
mdtre, mita(r). 



a, pAtte, Mhnn. o, £>eu, sch'6n. u, pv, kvmi. aw, £>an. 



§ 163.] 



List of Loan Words. 



107 



metronome, metronom. 
mirabile dictu, mireybili dik- 

tyu. 
mirage, miyra/zh. 
mitrailleuse, mitrayoez. 
modus vivendi, mowdas vai- 

vendai. 
moire, mwarey. 
Monseigneur, Monseynyoer. 
Monsieur, Miisyii. 
morceau, morsow. 
mot, mow. 
motif, mo'tif. 
muezzin, nmedzin. 
mufti, mcsfti. 
munshi, munshi. 
naive, naiv. 
naivete, naivtey. 
ne'e, ney. 
n&ve, neyvey. 
nirvana, noeva'na. 
nisi, naisai. 

noblesse oblige, nobles obli'zh. 
nom de plume, non da plum. 
nom de guerre, non da ger. 
nonchalant, nowshala'%. 
nonchalance, nowshala'ws. 
nonpareil, nonparel. 
nous, naus. 

nous verrons, nu YGvdn. 
nouveaux riches, nuYo' rish. 
nuance, niians. 
oasis, oweysis. 



obbligato, obliga'to'. 
octroi, oktrwa. 
oesophagus, isofagas. 
olla podrida, ola podri'da. 
on dit, on di. 
oubliette, ubliet. 
outre, utrey. 
pace, peysi. 
paillasse, paelyas. 
paletot, pselto'. 
panacea, paenasi'a. 
papier-macM, papyey mashey. 
par excellence, par ekselaws. 
parterre, parte'r, pate'a(r). 
parvenu, parYanii. 
Pasha, Pasha, Pasha. 
passe", pasey. 
passe-partout, pas-partii'. 
pastille, psestil. 
patois, patwa. 
penchant, pawshaw. 
pension, pawsyow. 
perdu, perdu. 
persiflage, persiflazh. 
persona grata, poesowna 

greyta. 
personnel, personel. 
petite, patit. 

petite culture, patit kiiltii'r. 
pfennig, pfenic. 
phthisis, thaisis. 
piano (subst.), pia/noSpise'no'. 
piano (adv.), pia'no*. 



een, pm. on, poxt. oew, un. x, acH. g, ion. 



108 



Loan Words used in English. 



[§ 163. 



pianoforte, pia'no'foti. 
piastre, piae'sta(r). 
piazza, pia'tsa, piae'tsa. 
piece de resistance, pyeys da 

reyzi'staws. 
pince-nez, paews ney. 
piquant, pikant. 
pique, pikey. 
pis oiler, piz aley. 
plebiscite, plebisit. 
Pleiades, Plaiadiz. 
poco cur ante, powko' kur- 

antey. 
poignard, ponyad, sometimes 

spelt poniard, 
point d'appui, puasw d apwi'. 
pongee, ponji. 
porte cochere, port koshe'r. 
portemonnaie, portmoney. 
portiere, portyer. 
poste restante, post restart. 
post meridiem, powst miri- 

dyem. 
pour encourager les autres, pur 

awkiirazhey leyz owtr. 
pour parler, pur parley. 
pour prendre conge, pur prawdr 

kowzhey. 
precis, preysi. 
prefet, prefey. 
prestige, presti'zh. 
preux chevalier, prii sheva- 

li'a(r). 



priedieu, pridyo. 
prima donna, prima dona. 
prima facie, praima feyshi. 
proces verbal, prosey verbal. 
promenade, promna'd. 
pronunciamento, pro'noen- 

shi'amento'. 
pro rata, prow reytey. 
programme, prowgraem. 
prote'ge, proteyzhey. 
pugaree, poegari. 
quantite nSgligeable, kawtitey 

neglizhabl. 
quartette, kwotet. 
quasi, kweysai. 
quatrefoil, kaetrafoil. 
queue, ko. 
qui vive, ki yiy. 
quondam, kwondaem. 
raconteur, rako'wtoer. 
ragout, ragu. 

raison d'etre, reyzow d eytr. 
Bajah, Raja. 
rallentando, ralenta'ndo'. 
ranche, ransh. 
rapprochement, raproshmaw. 
rationale, raeshaneyli. 
rechauffe, reshowfey. 
razzia, ratsya. 
recherche, reshe'rshey. 
reconnaissance, rikonisans. 
reconnoitre, rekanoita(r). 
refrain, rifreyn. 



a, pAtte, MA.nn. 6, £>eu, schon. ii, pu, kijmi. aw, £>an. 



§ 163.] 



List of Loan Words. 



109 



regime, reyzhim. 

Reichsrath, Raicsrat. 

Reichstag, Raicstag. 

Renaissance, Rineysaws. 

rendezvous, rawdeyYu'. 

rentes, rawt. 

repertoire, repertwar. 

repousse, rapusey. 

requiem, rekwiem. 

restaurant, restoraw. 

resume, reyzu'mey. 

reveille", reveyey. 

reverie, reYari. 

riant, riaw. 

ricochet, riko'shey. 

role, rowl. 

rondeau, rowdo'. 

rondel, rondel. 

roturier, ro'turiey. 

roue, ruey. 

rouge, ruzh. 

rouge et noir, ruzh ey nwar. 

roulade, riilad. 

ruche, riish. 

ruse, riiz, ruz. 

sabot, sabo'. 

sachet, sashey. 

saga, seyga. 

sahib, saib. 

salaam, sal am. 

salon, salow. 

sangfroid, sawfrwa. 

sans-culottes, saw kulot. 



sans-fagon, saw fasow. 
sans-souci, saw susi'. 
Sassenach, Ssssinsek. 
sauerkraut, sauakraut. 
sauve qui peut, sowy ki po. 
savant, saYaw. 
savoir-faire, savwar fer. 
savoir-vivre, savwar Yivr. 
scrutin de liste, skriitsew da 

list. 
scherzo, skertso'. 
seance, seyaws. 
seigneur, seynyoer. 
seigneury, sinyari. 
serviette, sersyet. 
Sevres, SeyYr. 
sgraffito, greafito'. 
sheikh, shik. 
siesta, siesta. 
Signor, Sinyor. 
Signora, Sinyo'ra. 
Signorina, Sinyori'na. 
silhouette, siluet. 
sine qua non, saini kwey non. 
sobriquet, sobrikey. 
soi-disant, swa dizaw. 
soiree, swarey. 
solidaire, solidea(r). 
sortie, sorti. 

sotto voce, soto' Yowchey. 
sou, su. 

souvenir, suYanir. 
staccato, staka'to'. 



gew, _piN. on, poM. oew, un. x, acu. q, icn. 



110 



Loan Words used in English. 



[§ 163. 



suave, sua Y. 

sub judice, sceb judisi. 

suite, swit. 

surveillance, soeYeylyans. 

tableau vivant, tablo' yIyeiw. 

table d'hdte, tabl' d owt. 

tapis, tapi. 

tazza, tsetsa. 

technique, tekni'k. 

terra incognita, tera inkog- 

nita. 
tete-a-tete, teyt a teyt. 
thaler, taler. 

tic douloureux, tik dulurii'. 
timbre, tse^br. 
tirade, tireyd. 
toilette, twalet. 
tour de force, tur da fors. 
toumure, turntir. 
tout ensemble, tut awsa/wbl. 
train de luxe, tvmn da liiks. 
trait, trey. 
tremolo, tremo'lo. 
trio, trio'. 

trisagion, trisee'gion. 
troupe, trup. 
tulle, tiil. 

ta quoque, tyu kwowkwi. 
turquoise, tiirkwaz, toekoiz. 
uhlan, ulan. 



ukase, yukeys. 

Vallauris (ware), Yalari. 

Valenciennes, Yalansy6n. 

vaZetf, Yselit. 

-yaZe£ ^e chambre, Yaley da 

shawbr. 
valise, Yaliz. 
vaudeville, YOwdYil. 
vedette, Yidet. 
vertu, Yertii. 
verve, YerY. 
vignette, Yinyet. 
vinaigrette, Yineygret. 
violoncello, Yaialanchelo'. 
virtuoso, Yoetyuowzo'. 
vis a vis, yiz a yi. 
vise, Yizey. 
visaed, Yizeyd. 
vivandiere, YiYandye'r. 
vivat, YiYa'. 
viva voce, YaiYa Yowsi. 
volte face, Yolt fas. 
Walhalla, Yselhsela. 
Zeitgeist, tsaitgaist. 
zeitung, tsaitung. 
zenana, zina'na. 
zither, zithar. 
Zollverein, Tsolfarain. 
zouave, zua'Y. 



a, pAtte, Mknn. 6, pEu, schon. ti, pv, kijH.n. slu, p&N. 
&n, pm. on, poxt. oew, un. x, &ch. c, ion. 



VI. 

HINTS FOE TEACHEES. 
Method Eecommended. 

§ 164. The subject of phonetics having as yet been very 
little taught in English schools, the outline of a method which 
has been found practically useful may not be unacceptable. 

The imitative faculties are so strong in early childhood that 
it is desirable to try to give young children a practical mastery 
of the sounds from the very beginning, before they can be 
expected to learn much as to the manner of their formation. 
They ought to have some drill in pronouncing the sounds of 
English and French in the Kindergarten. Experience shows 
that little children of six years of age are quite capable of ob- 
serving some of the most important distinctions in phonetics, 
e.g., between lip, point and back consonants, between stops and 
continuants, and between consonants which are voiced and un- 
voiced. But it is impossible to teach phonetics systematically 
without some phonetic notation ; and as, in secondary schools, 
most children come having already learnt the ordinary spelling 
at home, it seems difficult to attempt a course of lessons in 
phonetics before they are tolerably familiar with the ordinary 
spelling, say at about ten years of age. And meantime the 
teacher who is acquainted with the subject may do much in 
teaching them to pronounce clearly and well, and may lay a 
good foundation for the more systematic teaching which is to 
follow. 

In the following suggestions on the teaching of phonetics I 

(in) 



112 Hints for Teachers. [§§ 165-167. 

assume then that the children are about ten years of age, but 
it is hoped that they may be useful for older pupils also, as it 
is not proposed to sketch out a course of lessons in detail, but 
only to give some broad outlines and general instructions which 
each teacher can adapt to his own class. 

§ 165. The first and most important matter will be to teach 
the English sounds as thoroughly as possible, for when this is 
done, the formation and classification of French and German 
sounds will easily be understood. But as it may be taken for 
granted that the pupils already know a little French, at least as 
it appears in books, and in any case a few foreign sounds are 
wanted for the pronunciation of loan words from French and 
other languages, it will be desirable to teach a few of the most 
prominent sounds of French and German, in connexion with 
English phonetics, before beginning a systematic study of the 
sounds of these languages ; to do so will vary the lessons agree- 
ably and make them more interesting. 

§ 166. The chief things we have to teach are these : — 

(1) English sounds and the ordinary alphabet do not corre- 

spond. 

(2) A phonetic English alphabet. 

(3) A few sounds from French and German. 

(4) The structure of the vocal organs. 

(5) Formation and classification of sounds. 

(6) To read English aloud from phonetic spelling. 

(7) To analyze English words into their component sounds. 
It will be convenient to discuss separately the teaching of 

each of these divisions of the subject, although instruction in 
several of them may be going on simultaneously. 

§ 167. I. Sounds and Symbols do not Agree. First show 
that the sounds of English do not correspond with the twenty- 
six letters of our alphabet, and that — 

(1) For some sounds we must use digraphs, e.g., sh, th, ee, 
oo, as in SHe, ths, jdeeI, pool. 

(2) For some we have no symbols at all. We cannot dis- 



§ 168.] Method Recommended. 113 

tinguish the sounds in hut and put, Tms and Tmstle, sir and 
leisure. 

(3) We often use different symbols for the same sound, as 
in Kill, cat, queen, ecHo. 

§ 168. II. The Phonetic Alphabet. It is best to learn this 
by degrees, taking a few new sounds in each lesson, and 
carrying on simultaneously the teaching as to formation and 
classification of letters, and the combination of the easier sounds 
in words. 

Point out the difference between the sounds and their names, 
showing that the names are generally distinct from the sounds. 

Be careful to have the names of ng and e well pronounced. 
See §§ 61, 82. 

When teaching the vowels and diphthongs, let the list of 
key-words be learnt first, and then the names of the sounds. 

The children should finish learning the alphabet before learn- 
ing the formation and classification of all the sounds, and it 
will be convenient to teach the names of the short vowels before 
attempting the long ones. The reasons for this are that (1) 
whole sentences can be constructed with short vowels only, and 
(2) that we use no new symbols for the vowels in pet, pit, pot, 
put. So it is a good plan to teach words having these four 
vowels as soon as the six stops and three nasals have been 
learnt. The first spelling lesson contains no sounds besides 
these, and it might be read in the second lesson of the course. 

The order suggested is as follows : — 

1. Stops and Nasals with e, i, 0, u Spelling Lesson I. 

2. Consonants as far as dh ,, II. 

3. All the Consonants ,, III. 

4. The Short Vowels 03, se „ IV. 

5. The Short Unaccented Vowels a, i, o' „ V., VI. 

6. The Long Vowels „ VII., VIII. 

7. The Diphthongs „ IX., X. 

The diphthongs might be learnt after the reading lessons 
have been begun. 

8 



114 Hints for Teachers. [§§ 169-171. 

The teacher will find all the rarer sounds fully illustrated on 
p. xv. 

When the children have learnt to analyse ch, j, and the 
diphthongs into the sounds which compose them, they should, 
in repeating the alphabet, say : — 

ch = t+sh ai = a + i oi=6+i 
j = d + zh au = a + u yu = y + u 

§ 169. III. The Most Necessary Sounds in French and 
German. These are the vowels in patte, pen, pu, the four 
nasal vowels, and the consonants in ach and ich. Diagram V., 
on p. xxvii., will be a help in teaching some of the new vowels. 

French sounds should also be compared with English when 
teaching the English diphthongs ia, iia in peer and p>oor. 
Compare these diphthongs with the sounds l and u as they 
occur both in English words without r and in French words 
with r following, thus : — 

peel peer Fr. pire 

pool poor Pr. pour 

Pronounced. 

pil pia(r) pir 

pul piia(r) pur 

§ 170. IV. Structure of thej Yocal Organs. This cannot 
be explained much more simply than by referring to the 
diagrams on pp. xxvi., xxvii., and using the explanations in 
§§12-17. 

§ 171. V. Formation and Classification of the Sounds. 
This must be taught in such a way as to lead the children to 
discover as much as possible by their own observation. Many 
details which have been mentioned in the previous chapters 
should be omitted, being intended for the teacher only, who 
will want to know much more than he is able to impart ; but 
the order in which the chief facts are there explained has been 
carefully arranged to assist students in passing from the more 
obvious distinctions to those which are less noticeable, and 



171.] 



Method Eecommended. 



115 



more difficult to grasp, and this order might be followed in 
teaching children. 

It will certainly be found expedient in teaching to explain 
consonants before vowels, and the stops first of all. Again, 
amongst the stops, p and b, in which the action of the lips can 
so easily be seen, naturally come first. Then the distinction as 
to place, between lips, point of the tongue and back of the 
tongue, is easier to make out than that between voiced and 
unvoiced consonants, so it should be the first distinction noted. 
Two children of six have been found quite well able, in one 
lesson of a few minutes, to pronounce the name of ng, and to 
classify the stops and nasals as lip, point and back consonants, 
observing the difference for themselves. The difference between 
stops and continuants is also very easy to observe, and it might 
come next in order. 

Again, though we have observed that it is convenient to 
teach the names and sounds of the short vowels at a very early 
stage, we shall find, when the formation and classification of the 
vowels are to be taught, that it is easier to begin by studying 
the long vowels, and not those which are short and fleeting. 

It is a useful exercise to let the children write the conson- 
ants down the middle of a sheet of paper, gradually filling in 
the names which describe them, thus : — 

English Consonants. 
b 



Stops < 



CO 

•i— i 





t 

d 
k 

r 

'NasaHn 

Ug 

Side 1 
Trill r 



Breathy . 
Voiced/ ™ 


B 
V 


[Point. 


B 
V 


[Back. 


V 


Lips. 


V 


Point. 


V 


Back. 



Point. 



116 



Hints for Teachers. 



[| 172. 



Continuants ■{ 



rwh 
w 
f 

Y 

th 

dh 

s 

z 

sh 

zh 

y 

h 



B 

V 
B 

V 
B 
V 
B 
V 
B 
V 
V 
B 



Lips. 
Lip-teeth. 
Point-teeth. 
Point. 

Point-blade. 

Front. 
Throat. 



Composite I . __ , , ' 

The German consonants in ach and ich might be taught in 
connexion with the English continuants, the French vowels in 
patte, pen, pa, immediately after the classification of the five 
principal vowels, a, ey, i, ow, u, and the nasal vowels when all 
the long English vowels have been studied. 

§ 172. VI. Reading aloud from Phonetic Spelling. This 
exercise is a very necessary one, and will afford an excellent 
opportunity for training the children to pronounce clearly and 
well. But it will be found necessary to recognise some differ- 
ences between the pronunciation represented in this book and 
that of the teacher, seeing that no two people pronounce exactly 
alike, and to tolerate some varieties of pronunciation among the 
children themselves. We cannot fix upon any standard pro- 
nunciation which will be universally accepted. There are 
several pronunciations of English tolerated amongst educated 
people, besides those which are condemned as vulgar. The 
teacher should study the varieties of pronunciation pointed out 
in §§ 144-157, as well as the common mistakes to be guarded 
against in §§ 177-179. 

Though it has been thought desirable to use fixed forms of 
spelling for the weak and variable words, it must be remem- 



§ 173.] Method Becommended. 117 

bered that this does not accurately show their pronunciation 
when combined in sentences, and the teacher must not encour- 
age an unnatural use of the emphatic forms. He should study 
the list of weak words in § 150, and make the children 
notice some of the weak forms in the course of the reading 
lessons. 

It would not be difficult to begin reading a narrative in the 
very first lesson, deciphering it by the help of an occasional 
reference to the phonetic alphabet ; but this course is not 
recommended. The children would not see what was aimed 
at, or why they should be troubled with an unaccustomed 
spelling, unless they had first received a little instruction in 
phonetics. Before they attempt to read a narrative they should 
(1) commit to memory all the consonants and vowels (the diph- 
thongs might be learnt afterwards) ; (2) learn some of the more 
obvious distinctions between different classes of sounds ; and 
(3) read some of the spelling lessons — at least the first five — 
learning to spell the words aloud. They might begin to read 
the first spelling lesson as early as the second lesson of the 
course. 

§ 173. VII. Analysis of Words. This is a matter of no 
little difficulty, because in English we pronounce unaccented 
words and syllables so indistinctly, and some of the sounds are 
so short and fleeting that it is difficult to ascertain their real 
character. Moreover our minds are much confused by our 
irregular spelling, and it is as difficult to learn to trust the ear 
in phonetics as to trust the eye in drawing. Just as the 
beginner in drawing thinks he sees foreshortened lines and 
spaces nearly as large as those which face him, because he 
knows what their size really is, and imagines that a distant 
hill looks green when it really looks blue or purple, because he 
knows if it were near he would see it to be covered with green 
grass and trees, so that he cannot, without long training, learn 
to trust his sight and draw things as they appear ; so beginners 
in phonetics, thinking they know words to be pronounced 



118 Hints for Teachers. [§ 174. 

according to the spelling, seem unable to trust their ears and 
to write down what they hear. And even after some training, 
we are still liable, when we repeat words to see how we pro- 
nounce them, to depart from the pronunciation which we use 
when we are speaking unconsciously. 

For instance, Dr. Ellis tells of an old lady who stoutly as- 
serted that she always pronounced lecture as lektyuar, and the 
very next minute unawares said lekchar, with the same ending 
as teacher, just like other people. Dr. Sweet too observes that 
few people realise that they pronounce farther and save her 
exactly like father and savour. It is a good experiment, if we 
can find a friend upon whom we may venture to try such ex- 
periments without endangering our friendship, to ask some one 
who says this year, changing the s into sh, or adds r to idea in 
the idea of it, whether he ever pronounces in this fashion, for 
the reply will undoubtedly be an indignant denial, although 
most cultivated men and a large proportion of cultivated 
women pronounce in this manner, and we shall probably soon 
catch him in the very act he so vehemently repudiated. 

As therefore the analysis of words is difficult, and that of 
sentences far more so, it will be sufficient to ask children to 
analyse single words. For this purpose they should have much 
practice in — 

(1) Spelling aloud words pronounced by the teacher. 

(2) Spelling aloud words seen in phonetic spelling. 

(3) Writing phonetically from dictation ; and lastly, 

(4) Transcribing into phonetic spelling words and passages 
spelt in the ordinary way. 

This last is difficult, and should be reserved to the end of 
the course. A series of graduated exercises in it is given at 
II., pp. 69-77. For the Key, see I., §§ 180, 181. 

§ 174. How to Spell Aloud. The only difficulties here are 
(1) Syllable division, and (2) How to name the short vowels. 
Eules for syllable division are given in § 140 ; but the 
teacher will not go far wrong if he follows these two simple 



§ 175.] Method Becommended. 119 

directions. (1) Aim at a natural division of syllables, according 
to sound and not according to spelling. Hour, fire, and chasm 
are dissyllables in reality, just like power, higher, and season, 
and should be divided accordingly. (2) When several con- 
sonants occur between two vowels they ma,y be divided at 
pleasure in the way which seems most natural. 

Short accented vowels, when isolated, are to be called oet, 
est, et, it, ot, ut, because it is difficult to pronounce them 
alone, but the introduction of the t sound would make a con- 
fusion in spelling, so the children should take them with the 
consonant which follows, not breaking up at all such mono- 
syllables as if, on, and dividing such words as bed, nod into 
two parts only, thus : — b, ed ; n, od. 

Short unaccented vowels require to be treated differently, 
except i in close syllables, that is in syllables ending with a 
consonant, i may be taken with the consonant following it in 
such words as in-tend, dis-tress ; but in open syllables, where 
no consonant follows in the same syllable, it must be pronounced 
alone, e.g., in ni-ses-i-ti, di-poz-i-ta-ri. 

The unaccented vowels a and o' are to be called by their 
names — a and short o'. Otherwise, if a were taken with a 
consonant following, the children would identify it with oe, 
making the an in organ (ogan) just like cen in hunter (hoentar), 
and if they tried to pronounce an isolated o', or o' with a con- 
sonant following, they would really pronounce ow, making o'z 
in folo'z like owz in flowz. 

The short open unaccented vowels u as in intu, influans, 
and ey as in essay (esey), survey (soevey), subst., are so rare, 
except when u occurs as part of the diphthong yu (see §§ 103, 
105), that it is hardly worth while to make the children call them 
short u and short ey. It may suffice to call them ii and ey. 

§ 175. Miscellaneous Exercises. The teacher will have 
no difficulty in inventing a variety of exercises to test the chil- 
dren's knowledge and cultivate their powers of observation. 
It will interest them, for instance, and be useful also, to give 



120 Hints for Teachers. [§ 176. 

them a list of words in ordinary spelling illustrating the nine 
values of the letter a (§ 80), or the four values of the digraph 
ng (§ 66), and to ask them to write after each word the proper 
phonetic symbol for a or ng. But it would be a waste of time 
to attempt to show them all the intricacies of ordinary spelling, 
as exhibited in the exx. in §§ 19-59. 

§ 176. How to Teach the Sounds of French and German. 
It is so easy to explain the sounds of French and German when 
once a good foundation of English phonetics has been laid, that 
the teacher will probably find no difficulty in simplifying the 
French and German sections of this book and adapting them to 
his class. The cultivation of the ear and the vocal organs to 
enable the children to distinguish and reproduce correctly the 
new sounds and combinations of sounds, will no doubt require 
a good deal of patience, but the work will be wonderfully 
facilitated by a sound elementary knowledge of phonetics, and 
what is learnt will be so clearly grasped that it will not easily 
be forgotten. 

The other important requirement is that, in the children's 
first course of lessons in a foreign language, some sort of pho- 
netic spelling should be used. The particular alphabets used in 
this work are commended to the teacher's notice as being pecu- 
liarly easy to read, to write, and to print ; but it is probable 
that some may prefer to use the international alphabet of the 
Maitre Phonetique, or the French alphabet of Franke's Phrases 
de tons les jours, as that little book contains such good material 
for conversation. 

Teachers who have tried the experiment of using phonetic 
spelling in this way are unanimous in pronouncing it a far more 
effectual plan than to begin with ordinary spelling. The child 
sees how each word should be pronounced, and is saved from 
those perpetual corrections and fault-findings which are so 
wearisome and discouraging to beginners. To those who ob- 
serve that this involves the trouble of learning two things 
instead of one, M. Passy's reply is that when a man is told to 



§ 176.] Principes Pedagogiques de V Association, etc. 121 

convey a load from one place to another, he does not complain 
because he has to take a wheelbarrow as well. 

It may perhaps be useful and instructive to print here the 
rules which have been adopted by the International Phonetic 
Association. 

PEINOIPES PEDAGOGIQUES DE LTASSOCIATION 
PHON^TIQUE INTEENATIONALE. 

Secretaire, M. Paul Passy, 11, route de Fontenay, 
Bourg-la-Beine. 

1. — Ce qu'il faut etudier d'abord dans une langue etrangere, 
ce n'est pas le langage plus ou moins archaique de la literature* 
mais le langage parle de tous les jours. 

2. — Le premier soin du maitre doit etre de rendre parfaite- 
ment familiers aux eleves les sons de la langue etrangere. Dans 
ce but il se servira d'une transcription phonetique, qui sera em- 
ployee a l'exclusion de l'orthographe traditionelle pendant la 
premiere partie du cours. 

3. — En second lieu, le maitre fera etudier les phrases et les 
tournures idiomatiques les plus usuelles de la langue etrangere. 
Pour cela il fera etudier des textes suivis, dialogues, descriptions 
et recits, aussi faciles, aussi naturels et aussi interessants que 
possible. 

4. — II enseignera d'abord la grammaire inductivement, 
comme corollaire et generalisation des faits observes pendant la 
lecture ; une etude plus systematique sera reservee pour la fin. 

5. — Autant que possible, il rattachera les expressions de la 
langue etrangere directement aux idees, ou a d'autres expres- 
sions de la meme langue, non a celles de la langue maternelle. 
Toutes les fois qu'il le pourra, il remplacera done la traduction 
par des lecons de choses, des lecons sur des images et des expli- 
cations donnees dans la langue etrangere. 

6. — Quand plus tard il donnera aux eleves des devoirs ecrits 
a faire, ce seront d'abord des reproductions de textes deja lus 



122 Hints for Teachers. [§ 177. 

et expliqu6s, puis de recits faits par lui-meme de vive voix ; en- 
suite viendront les redactions libres ; les versions et les themes 
seront gardes pour la fin. 

Common Mistakes. 

§ 177. The varieties of pronunciation among educated 
English people are so numerous and so perplexing, that it is 
by no means easy to say what may be tolerated and what must 
be reckoned as a mistake. In the following list I mention some 
pronunciations which occur in the most instructive book which 
has been written on English pronunciation — Dr. Sweet's Ele- 
mentarbuch. But I wish it to be understood that I do not 
deny that some of these so-called mistakes, e.g., dhi aidi'ar av 
it, are extremely common amongst educated Englishmen. I 
do not presume to lay down any authoritative rule of pro- 
nunciation, but it may perhaps be useful to point out what I 
myself should aim at in teaching children to pronounce the 
English language. Teachers of children are compelled to be 
dictators. 

The following list is not meant to include provincialisms or 
vulgarisms of any sort, but only some slip-shod habits into 
which well-educated people may easily fall unawares. 

I. Do not introduce final r because the next word begins 
with a vowel. Avoid : — 

(1) -a changed to -ar, as in Yikto'ri'ar auar kwin, dhi 
aidi'ar oy it, dha sowfar iz kcBYad, etc. 

(2) -6 changed to or, as in dha lor ay dha Lod. 

(3) -a changed to -ar, as in papar iz gon aut. 

(4) -o' changed to -ar, as in dha windar iz owpn', dha 
felar iz leyzi. 

II. Do not alter final point consonants because the next 
word begins with y. Avoid : — 

(1) s changed to sh, as in dhish yoer, siksh yoez. This 
practice is extremely common, even amongst highly educated 
people. A lady of the name of Alice Young told me that a 



§ 177.] Common Mistakes. 123 

large proportion of her friends called her JSlish Yoeng, and 
many dignitaries of the Church are caught in this pitfall. 

(2) z changed to zh, as in sszh yuzhwal, aezh yet, 61 
dhizh yoez, preyzh yi dha L6d. The change of z to zh, 
or to sh, before sh, in such phrases as is she, pronounced izh 
or ish shi, seems, however, to be unavoidable in rapid speech. 

(3) t, with y following, changed to ch, as in hi wil mi 
chu (mit yu), las chiar (last yiar), ey chiaz agow (eyt 
yiaz), down chu (or cha) now (downt yu). In last yiar 
avoid also dropping the t and reducing it to lash yiar. 

(4) d, with y following, changed to j, as in it woz pey 
jestadi (peyd yestadi), it mey ju heziteyt (meyd yu). 

III. Pronounce clearly the endings n, ing, o', 6, iti. Avoid : — 

(1) n changed to m, after a lip consonant, as in ileYm' a 
klok, giYm' cep, a keep m' sosar. 

(2) ing changed to in, as in telin, givin, etc. 

(3) o' changed to a, as in winda, pila, for windo', pi!o\ 

(4) 6 changed to da, as in ritn' in dha 16a, as if lore were 
written instead of law. So raw, daw, flaw must have a pure 
unaltered vowel, and not end with a vowel glide as roar, door, 
floor often do. 

(5) iti changed to ati, as in yunati, abilati. 

IV. Keep ty and dy clear in accented syllables. Avoid : — 

(1) ty changed to ch, as in opachuniti (opatyuniti). 

(2) dy changed to j, as in juaring (dyuaring). Observe 
that in unaccented syllables the change of ty to ch is often 
allowed, as in nature, venture, question, and the change of dy 
to j occasionally, as in soldier. 

V. Pronounce r carefully in unaccented syllables. Avoid : — 

(1) Introducing a before it when it follows a consonant, as 
in Henari, oembarela. 

(2) Dropping an r or otherwise mispronouncing a word in 
which r occurs twice, as in laibrari, Februari, tempararili? 
sekritari, diti'ariareyt, litarari, lasbaratari, mispronounced 
laibri, Febyuari, temparali, and so on. 



124 



Hints for Teachers. 



[§ 178. 



VI. Keep a and i distinct from one another in unaccented 
syllables, as far as can be done without pedantry. Avoid : — 

(1) i changed to a, as in Apral, Yizabl', herasi, as well as 
in the ending -iti, already mentioned. 

(2) a changed to i, as in mirikl'. 

§ 178. Avoid also these miscellaneous mistakes, which are 
all heard in the speech of educated people : — 





Mispronounced. 


Properly. 


antarctic 


senta'tik 


senta'ktik 


arctic 


atik 


aaktik 


aye (yes) 


ey 


ai 1 


biography 


biografi 


baiografi 


calisthenic 


ksslistenik 


kaelisthenik 


catch 


kech 


ksech 


christian 


krishtyan 


kristyan or krischan 


drama 


drsema 


drama 


economic 


eko'nomik 


iko'nomik 


God 


God 


God 


heterogeneous 


hetaro'genyas 
or hetaro'jenyas 


hetaro'ji'nyas 


homogeneous 


howmo'genyas 


howmo'ji'nyas 


I dare say 


ai desey 


ai dear sey 


idyll 


idil 


aidil 


Isaiah 


Aizaia 


Aizaiai 


just 


jest 


jcest 


neighbourhood 


neybarud 


neybahud 


nomenclature 


nowmenklachar 


nowmenkleychar 


panorama 


paenaraVma 


p»nara'ma 


'philanthropic 


filantropik 


filanthropik 


philosopher 


filosifar 


filosafar 


presumptuous 


prizce'mshas 


prizoemtywas 


primer 


praimar 


primar 


question 


kwesshan 
or kweshshan 


kweschan 



On the diphthong ai, see § 105. 



179.] 



Common Mistakes. 



125 



recognise 


rekanaiz 


rekagnaiz 


rheumatism 


rumatizam 


rumatizm' 


schism 


sizim 


sizm' 


sure 


shoar 


shuar 


surely 


sholi 


shuarli 


thank 


thengk 


thsengk 



§ 179. And, above all, avoid : — 

Faults Characteristic of Teachers, that is to say, pedantic 
efforts to pronounce as we spell. The derivation of the word 
"pedantic" might in itself serve as a warning against this 
fault, but it will be useful to give some illustrations of what is 
meant. A well-known teacher of elocution tells me that she 
thinks she shall be compelled to leave off teaching in girls' 
schools, because the mistresses require, amongst other things, 
that she should make the girls pronounce mountain and 
fountain, with the ending -teyn, like obtain, and several of the 
mistakes given below are such as none but teachers could, I 
think, be guilty of, though others are more widely spread. 



mountain 

fountain 

cp. villain 
chaplain 
captain 
curtain 

often 

cp. soften 

associate (sb.) 

associate (vb.) 

cp. social 
musician 
officiate 

propitiation 

conquer 



Mispronounced. 

maunteyn 
faunteyn 



oftan or oftan 

asowsyit 
asowsieyt 



pro'pisieyshan 
kongkwar 



Properly. 

mauntin 
fauntin 

Yilin 

cheeplin 

keeptin 

koetin 
ofn* or ofn' 

sofn' or sofn' 
asowshyit 
asowshieyt 

sowshal 

myuzishan 

ofishieyt or afishiey t 
pro'pishieyshan 
kongkar 



126 



Hints for Teachers. 



[§ 180. 



cp. exchequer 
liquor 

soldier 1 

inspiration 

recitation 

cp. admiration 
resignation 
respiration 

England 

cp. pretty 

says, said 



sowldyar 

inspaireyshan 

risaiteyshan 



Enggland 
seyz, seyd 



ekschekar 
likar 

sowljar 

inspireyshan 

resiteyshan 
sedmireyshan 
rezigneyshan 
respireyshan 

Inggland 
priti 

sez, sed 



ate 
ebb 

egg 

ill 

if 
of 
wreck 

rick 



is 

this 

puss 

says 



§ 180. KEY TO THE SPELLING LESSONS. 

I. 

on pot kid good big 

pet put cod nook bog 

pit bed could cook Tom 

II. 

fill 
full 



it 

in 

odd 



rock 
rook 
when 



wen 
whet 



wet 

thin 

then 

them 

fell 



bull 

deaf 

give 



was 
wash 
dish 
push 



should 

shook 

yes 

yet 



III. 

yell 
his 
hiss 
chin 



chick 
hook 
John 
Jem 



pith 
with 

fit 

foot 

wood 

etch 
edge 
which 
witch 



men 
king 
gong 

thick 

lock 

look 

pull 

wool 

rich 
hedge 
lodge 
push 



1 The only words with, endings similar to that of soldier, are procedure, 
verdure, grandeur, and it is best to pronounce -jar in them all ; but as 
they are not in such common use as soldier, the ending -dyar is allow- 
able. Soldiers themselves cry out that they would rather be called sojaz 
than sowldyaz, when some young lady at a penny reading scrupulously 
pronounces the word according to the spelling. 

2 See Phonetic Reading Booh, p. 5. 



§ 180.] 



Key to the Spelling Lessons. 



127 



as 

ash 

buck 

bach 

booh 



up 

us 

at 

add 

am 

amid 

aback 

attach 

among 

above 



a 

an 

and 

the before vowel 

the before consonant 

that rel. or conj. 



palm 

calm 

barn 

cart 

are 

far 

burn 

turn 

dirt 

hurt 

word 

Persian 



cup 
cap 
bud 
bad 
rug 



IV. 

rag dove 

thumb have 

than thus 

sung puss 

sang rush 

V. 

abash villa 

attach Bella 

amass Anna 

amiss Hannah 

ahead collar 

VI. 

that demonstrative 

to 

tivo, too 

a man 

an ox 

pen and ink 

VII. 

they he pause 

obey me port 

pale see law 

pace feel draw 

eight piece for 

gate machine nor 

VIII. 

fairy father 

hairy martyr 

Mary regard 

daring bazaar 

wearing return 

tearing deserve 



rash 

push 

much 

match 

judge 



dollar 

miller 

rudder 

gunner 

fuller 

the orange 

the nuts 

putty 

folly 

fully 

resist 



no 

go 

so 

bowl 

boat 

coat 



repairing 

despairing 

daisy 

station 

peaceful 

deceive 



madge 

gush 

bush 

dull 
pull 

colour 

ma?iner 

matter 

mother 

slimmer 

pretend 

select 

protect 

window 

follow 

following 

who 

do 

shoe 

rude 

rule 

boot 

recourse 

portion 

mowing 

motion 

ruler 

truthful 



128 



Hints for Teachers. 



[§ 181. 



IX. 



bide 


prying 


how 




join 


joying 


new 


bite 


flying 


now 




choice 


cloying 


few 


cry 


house 


bowing 


boy 


duke 


unique 


fly 


mouse 


allowing 


joy 


duty 


unite 








X. 








wear 


there 




rear 




door 


hoar 


pear 


hair 




fears 




more 


poor 


ivhere 


ear 




seer 




roars 


tours 


air 


peer 




hear 




soars 


doer 


tares 


tiers 




oar, ore 


wore 


moor 


dares 


dear 




or 




four, fore 


wooer 


cares 


mere 




pour 




for 


sure 


rare 


near 




tore 




nor 


brewer 



§ 181. KEY TO THE EXEBCISES. 1 

EXEECISE I. 

Bel, eg, in, stif, od, ful, digd, livd, led, ded, piti, meri, sori, 
Wili, redi, sens, stik, blok, horid, plenti, plentifuli. 

Exeecise II. 

Jon haed a gud dog. Flori lukt set it. A baeg ful ov wul. 
A wuli laem. Hiz fut iz wet. Hiz haend iz ful. Saem left hiz 
buk. Jim tuk it. Wili iz not stedi. Giv him ten minits. 

Exeecise III. 

iEn iz a gud kuk. Henri haez a priti boks. Ten penz. 
Twenti pens. Fifti buks. Siksti bedz. Meni koks and henz. 
A boks ov briks. Wili nokt. Jon helpt Tom. Mini haez bred 
and egz. Ned spelz wel. Kiti haez meni frendz. 

Exeecise IV. 

iEni woz thingking. Dha laem iz 
Mezhar dhis bit ov wud. A mosi baangk. A 



Dha bel woz ringing. 



dringking 



1 See Plwnetic Reading Book, p. 69. 



§ 181.] Key to the Exercises. 129 

hochpoch. Maech dhget red wul. Put in a stich. Dringk 
dha milk. Faeni iz set lezhar. Ned haez a trezhar. Jon iz 
veri aonggri. Tom iz aenggling. 

Exeecise V. 

Heyst meyks weyst. Now peynz, now geynz. II widz 
grow apeys. Ikstrimz (or ekstrimz) mit. Chseriti biginz set 
howm. Greyt iz dha truth, and it shsel priveyl. Ncen ov 
dhiz thingz muvd him. Dha toeng iz not stil, beet it kcets. 
Trezhaz ov wikidnis (or -nes) profit ncething. 

Exercise VI. 
Amz ar dha solt ov richiz. Truth mey bi bleymd, boet 
kant bi sheymd. Hi dhat slipith (or -eth) in havist iz a soen 
dhat kozith sheym. A soft (or soft) ansar toenith awey roth. 
01 hoer padhz ar pis. Fowo'nd, fora'md. 

Exeecise VII. 

A stich in taim seyvz nain. If dhau du il, dha joi feydz, 
not dha peynz ; if wel, dha peyn dceth feyd, dha joi rimeynz. 
Dha psen sez tu dha pot, " Kip of, or yu 1 smcech mi ". Moe- 
dar wil aut. Hu nowz noething, dauts noathing. Woen fow 
iz tu meni, and a hcendrad frendz tti fyu. Now kros, now 
kraun. 

Exercise VIII. 
Aut ov det, aut ov deynjar. A profit hasz now onar in hiz 
own kcentri. Fizishan, hil dhaiself. Dha risi'var z (or -vaz) 
sez bsed aez dha thif. A rowling stown gsedhaz now mos. 
Dhau shaelt sunar ditekt an asnt (or ant) mtiving in dha dak 
nait on dha blask oeth, dhasn 61 dha mowshanz ov praid in 
dhain hat. 

Exercise IX. 
Msen pro'powziz, God dispowziz. Kowlz tu Nyukasl'. 
Misfochauz nevar kcem singgl'. Hevn' and oeth fait in veyn 
agenst (or ageynst) a dcens. Dha rivar past and God fogotn'. 

9 



130 Hints for Teachers. [§ 181. 

When dha teyl ov briks iz doebl'd, Mowziz koemz. Iz Sol olso' 
ainceng dha profits ? 

Exercise X. 

Moar heyst, woes spid. A skoldid dog fiaz kowld wotar. 
II diiaz ar il dirnaz. Dhear z {or dheaz) meni a slip twikst 
dha keep and dha lip. Dha fiar ov maen bringith (or -eth) a 
snear. A puar msen iz betar dhaen a ful. Bifoar onar iz 

hyuniiliti. 

Exercise XL 
Dha greyps ar sauar. Xohj iz pauar. A boent chaild 
dredz dha faiar. It iz not, it iz not, seth dha baiar, boat when 
hi iz gon (or gon) hiz wey, dhen hi bowstith. Dhey woer 
mseriing and giving in maerij. Tu dha pyiiar 61 thingz ar 
pyfiar. Wi kaunt dhem blesid which indyiiar (or endyiiar). 

Exercise XII. 
A hori owld maen. A dering robari. Dha doar woz ajar. 
Wud iz poras. Klera wil not ritoen. Men iz injoiing hoer 
raid. Alistar Jownz iz imploiing a gadnar. Hoer mowtivz 
ar not aperant. Maroko' weaz wel. Sera iz laiing daun. 
Lm'za iz centaiing a not. Dhey ar risto'ring dha choech. 

Exercise XIII. 

Class 1. Class 2. Class 3. 

divizhan pro'tekt kondisend 

siveriti advaiz ritoen 

obzaveyshan parental ditoemin 

ikspae'nshan or eks- o'bidyant igzibit, or egzibit 

pae'nshan molest intelijant 

eksibishan kantinyii intimideyt 

prejudishal abominabl' dislaik 

insensibiliti kansil 
dilyn'zhan 
imposibiliti 
obligeyshan 



VII. 

FEENCH ANALYSIS. 

§ 182. The following pages are not an attempt to treat the 
sounds of the French language very fully, but only to give an 
easy introduction to the study of French pronunciation, in the 
hope that students will at least go on to read M. Paul Passy's 
Sons du Francais and Le Francais Parle, if they have not 
leisure to attempt any larger treatises on the subject. The 
pronunciation of the French language presents special diffi- 
culties to English people, for French and English are strongly 
contrasted with one another, not only in their system of sounds, 
but in their accentuation and intonation. German pronuncia- 
tion is comparatively easy. 

The Consonants. 

§ 183. This is the easiest part of our task. A comparison 
of the table of French consonants on p. xix. with the English 
table on p. xviii. does indeed show a formidable array of nine new 
consonants, five of which are included in the alphabet on p. xvi., 
but the difficulty is greater in appearance than in reality, as 
will be seen when these consonants are explained in detail. 

No less than five of the symbols in the scheme of French 
consonants on p. xix., namely, r 2 , 'r 2 , \c, 'w and e y, can be dis- 
pensed with in writing, though they are wanted to make the 
scheme complete, and to enable us to explain the sounds of 
French. 

It will be found that the points requiring most attention are 

the use of unvoiced 1 and r, as in table and autre (tab'l, ot'r), 

(131) 



132 French Analysis. [§§ 184-186. 

and what is really more difficult, the use of the familiar voiced 
r in unaccustomed positions. 

The Stops. 

§ 184. The French stops, p, b, t, d, k, g, correspond with 
the English stops. They are formed in the same way, and we 
use the same symbols to represent them. The usual symbols 
for k are c and qu, as in cou, qui (kou, ki). 

There are, however, three points of difference in the forma- 
tion and sound of the French and English stops, recognised by 
phoneticians, but not very important for beginners. First, the 
English hard stops, p, t, k, when they occur before an accented 
vowel, are pronounced with a forcible expulsion of the breath, 
so that they may be said to be aspirated, and this is not the 
case in French. 

Secondly, according to M. Passy, the French soft stops, b, 
d, g, differ from English b, d, g in being fully voiced. 

And thirdly, the French point stops t and d are formed by 
placing the point of the tongue against the upper teeth (some 
say the back and some the edge of the teeth), whilst in the 
English t and d the point of the tongue touches the upper 
gums. They are therefore decidedly further forward than our 
point stops. 

The Liquids. 

§ 185. The Nasals. The French nasals are three in 
number, m, n and ft. The back nasal (English and German 
ng) does not exist in French, but we find a new palatal nasal 
ft, which does not occur in English and German. 

§ 186. The Lip-nasal m is, properly speaking, a voiced 
consonant, but under special circumstances it is liable to 
become voiceless. It is never syllabic as in English. At the 
end of a breath group, after a consonant — a position in which 
English m becomes syllabic — it is voiceless, and is written 
thus : c m, as in the words prisme, rhumatisme, pronounced 



§§ 187-190.] The Liquids. 133 

pris'm, rumatis'm. Compare English chasm, criticism 
(kaezm', kritisizm'). On the pronunciation of words like 
prisme, when not at the end of a breath group, see § 234. 

§ 187. The Point-nasal n is slightly different from the 
English n, in that the point of the tongue is placed against the 
teeth. In this respect it corresponds with the French point 
stops d and t. 

§ 188. The Front-nasal fi. This sound does not occur 
frequently, and like the English and German ng, it is never 
heard at the beginning of a word. It is formed in the same 
part of the mouth as y, that is, by the front of the tongue and 
the hard palate. But the tongue comes into contact with the 
palate, so that, as in the case of the other nasal consonants, the 
mouth passage is closed, and the breath is sent through the 
nose. The nearest approach to it in English is the ny in 
onion, pinion (oenyan, piny an). 

M. Passy says that French people have different ways of 
pronouncing this sound, and that many educated people sound 
it as ny, making the last syllable of regner like that of panier. 
But in panier, and wherever n is followed by y, n is not formed 
in the same place as t and d, but is more or less thrown back 
or palatalised. 

§ 189. 1 in French, like t, d and n, is formed by placing 
the point of the tongue against the teeth ; and as in English 1, 
the sides, or at least one side of the tongue, is left open as a 
passage for the breath. 1 But the most important point to be 
observed is the same which has been already noticed in ex- 
plaining French m. 

§ 190. Voiceless 1. At the end of a breath group, after a 
consonant, French 1 is always voiceless, and we represent it by 
1. This requires special attention, for in the same position 
English 1 is voiced and syllabic. Compare English table, noble, 
with French table, noble. Breathed 1 will present no difficulty 

1 The back of the tongue is not raised as in English 1, which may be 
described as a point-back, instead of a point, consonant. — Ed. 



134 French Analysis. [§§ 191-193. 

to those who have mastered the distinction between breathed 
and voiced sounds. See § 64. On the variations of such 
words as table, peuple, under different circumstances, see 
§234. 

The Welsh breathed 1, written 11 in Llangollen, etc., differs 
from French 1 in having the breath expelled much more 
forcibly, so that it may be said to be aspirated, and also in 
occurring sometimes at the beginning of words. 

§ 191. 1 niouille. This sound is the same as the Italian gl, 
and is an 1 formed by contact of the tongue and palate, corre- 
sponding to the front-nasal n. It is still heard in the south of 
France, but has been superseded in the north by y, and may 
therefore be omitted from our alphabet. 

§ 192. r and r 2 . The symbol r 2 is used to denote the 
guttural r which is used in Paris and is now becoming general 
in all the large towns of France. It is very different from our 
English r, being formed further back in the mouth than k and 
g, by trilling the uvula. But in the country and the smaller 
towns r is formed as in English, with the point of the tongue, 
and this pronunciation is not considered faulty. And the 
Parisian guttural r 2 is not allowed to be used on the stage or 
in singing. 

It is quite unnecessary for English people to learn to pro- 
nounce r 2 , and indeed it is so difficult for us that the attempt 
would certainly result in failure. 

Some forty years ago the Parisian guttural r was thought 
to be affected, and the servant-maids who were engaged to 
speak French with us in the nursery were chosen from the 
district round Orleans, so that we might learn the purer French 
of that province. 

§ 193. Yc-iced r. French r, like the other French liquids, 
is usually voiced, and the French voiced r, when formed with 
the point of the tongue, is like the English r in rat, tree, etc., 
but more distinctly trilled. Yet it is perhaps the most trouble- 
some of all the French consonants for English students. For 



§ 194.] The Liquids. 135 

in English this sound never occurs before a consonant, nor is 
it ever heard at the end of a word, unless the next word begins 
with a vowel. Moreover, it usually converts the preceding 
vowel into a diphthong, by introducing the sound a, as in peer, 
poor (pia(r), pua(r)). See § 108 f. So English people find it 
very difficult (1) to pronounce r as a consonant when it is final 
or followed by another consonant, and (2) to keep long vowels 
followed by r pure to the end. 

Although French r is short, and slightly trilled as com- 
pared with the r heard in Italian, the best way to learn to 
pronounce it properly is to begin by practising a long trill, and 
then to learn to hold the vowels which precede it steady and 
unchanged, passing suddenly from them to the r sound. It 
will be a useful exercise to learn to distinguish accurately 
between the English and French words given below, where the 
difference is only in the treatment of r. 



English. 


French. 


English. 


French, 


peer 


pire 


rear 


rire 


tier 


tire 


sere 


sire 


dear 


dire 


poor 


pour 


leer 


lyre 


tour 


tour 



§ 194. Voiceless r. The sound r follows the same rule as 
m and 1, becoming voiceless at the end of a breath group after 
a consonant, as in poudre, maitre (pouch?, met'r). c r is rather 
more difficult for English people than 1, and needs some 
practice. It should be pronounced very softly. It is a good 
exercise to learn to make a long trill without any voice. The 
sound is very like the purring of a cat. 

Compare with Fr. sawt c r, fib'r, Eng. centre, fibre (senta(r), 
faiba(r)), where we introduce the obscure vowel a, and do not 
pronounce the r unless a vowel follows in the next word. 

On the pronunciation of the above words, when not at the 
end of a breath group, see § 234. 



136 French Analysis. [§§ 195-199. 

The Continuants. 

§ 195. The Front-round Lip-continuant u. This sound 
is heard in huile, huit, nuit, lui, etc., and is apt to be con- 
founded by English people with w or ou (Eng. u). They do 
not distinguish as they ought between lui and Louis (lui, Lwi), 
but pronounce them both alike lwi or loui. 

The consonant u is derived from the vowel u, bearing the 
same relation to it as the consonants w and y do to ou and i 
(Eng. ii and i) respectively. See §§ 71, 76. So when the 
student can pronounce the French u in bu, lu, nu, etc., he 
need only try to pronounce this vowel very rapidly and pass 
quickly to the vowel which follows, and he will not fail to 
produce the consonant u in buis, lui, nuit, etc. 

Observe that the action of the lips is the same for w and u, 
but a different part of the tongue is raised, namely, the back 
for w and the front for u. 

§ 196. Voiceless u. The lip- continuant u generally ceases 
to be voiced when it follows a voiceless consonant, as in puis, 
fids (p e «i, t'ui). But some Frenchmen pronounce u in puis 
like u in buis, so the distinction is not of much importance, 
and it is practically unnecessary to write \i. 

§ 197. The Back-round Lip -continuant w. This does 
not occur in French so frequently as in English, but it is heard 
in oui, Bouen, bois, voix (wi, Rwaw, bwa, YWa), and many 
other words. After a voiceless consonant it generally becomes 
voiceless, as in poids,foi (pwa, f'wa) ; but there is no necessity 
to use the symbol 'w. It is never so strongly aspirated as the 
English wh in where. 

There is some difference between English, and French w heard vrhen 
we carefully compare them, as in French end and English ice. The dis- 
tinction appears to be that French w is narrow, whilst English w is wide. 

§ 198. The Lip-Teeth Continuants f and y. These are 
like English f and Y, and need no special remark. 

§ 199. The Point- Continuants or Sibilants s, z, ch, j. 



§§ 200, 201.] The Continuants. 137 

All that we need notice here is that in French ch and j stand 
for the simple sounds which are represented in English by sh 
and zh, 1 and not for the composite sounds tsh and dzh, for 
which we use the symbols ch and j. French chou is like 
English shoe, and not like chew, and French joue differs in like 
manner from English Jew. Many French words, such as je, 
joue, jeune, begin with j = English zh, a sound which we use 
only in the middle of words, as in leisure, treasure, measure 
(lezhar, trezhar, mezhar), etc. 

§ 200. The Front Continuant y. This sound very seldom 
occurs at the beginnings of words, and is not often represented 
by y. The symbols for it are i, 'i, y, ill and 11, as in oien, 
mens, mangions, a'ieul, yeux, joyeux, paille, fille (hyen, Yyhn, 
manjyow, ayeul, yeu, jwayeu, pa:y, fi:y). Though not so 
difficult as the 1 mouille which it has superseded, it needs 
attention and practice, because in English we are not 
accustomed to pronounce it at the end of our words. 

y after a hard consonant generally becomes voiceless, 
following the same rule as u and w. It is voiceless, for 
instance, in pied, chien (pye, ch'yew), but it is practically 
unnecessary to use the symbol c y to represent this sound. e y 
is nearly the same as the German ch in ich. 

§ 201. The Throat Continuant h. This sound has ceased 
to be used in Paris and in most parts of France. The so-called 
aspirated h only denotes that there must be no liaison with the 
preceding word. But this produces an awkward hiatus, quite 
contrary to the genius of the French language, e.g., in en haut 
(Bin 6), and M. Passy recommends the retention of the h, as in 
the French of Normandy. I myself was taught to sound it in 
my childhood by bonnes who were supposed to pronounce 
better than the Parisians, but it is probable that most students 
will prefer to omit it, following the example of the Parisians 
and of the great majority of French people in this respect. 

1 They may be called point-blade continuants. — Ed. 



138 French Analysis. [§§ 202-204. 

The Vowels. 

§ 202. The French vowel system is very different from 
ours, as may be seen by a comparison of the schemes on pp. 
xxii., xxiii. ; and nothing is commoner than to hear English 
people, who can speak French quite fluently, make sad havoc of 
the vowels. For our short vowels are quite different from theirs, 
and we have a tendency to turn our long vowels into diph- 
thongs, which is a great obstacle to us in trying to acquire the 
long vowels of either French or German. 

In studying the French vowels it is best to begin with the 
eight normal vowels, a, a, e, e, i, o, 6, ou, as in pdte, patte, 
pres r eU, fini, homme, drole, tout. 

The Open Vowels. 

§ 203. a in pdte is very like a in father, but deeper, the 
tongue being more depressed. It does not occur very fre- 
quently, and is represented by a or a, or when combined with 
w, by oi = wa, exx. : — male, passer, trois (ma:l, pase, trwa). 
It is easily recognised when written a, and it is heard in all 
those words which end in -ation or -assion (-asyow), and 
wherever oi is preceded by r, making the sound rwa, exx. : — 
preparation, passion, trois, froid (preparasyow, pasyow, trwa, 
frwa). 

French a is sometimes mistaken for English 6 in Paid, as 
it resembles it in being more open than English a, and French 
pas is pronounced like English paw, but this is a bad fault. 
French a should not be rounded like English 6, and those who 
cannot imitate it precisely would do better to substitute for it 
the English a in father. 

§ 204. a in patte is a mixed open vowel, differing from a in 
father in being mixed and not back, and from 38 in fat in being 
more open. It is intermediate between the two, and pains 
should be taken to make it distinct from both of them. It is 
generally short, as in a, la, patte, madame (a, la, pat, madam), 
but it may also be long, as in rare, cage (ra:r, ka:j). 



§§ 205-207.] The Front Vowels. 139 

a is easiest for English people when it is short and followed 
by a consonant ; and if a difficulty is found in pronouncing final 
a, as in la mer (la me:r), it is best to practice it a few times 
with the first consonant of the next word, thus : — lam, lam, la 
me:r. 

As I have followed M. Paul Passy throughout the French section of 
this book, it is right to mention that, in calling a in patte a mixed vowel, 
I have ventured to differ from him. He says that it is a front vowel, and 
observes, what is no doubt true, and is shown in diagram A (p. xxvii.), that 
in low vowels the difference between front and back is not nearly so great 
as in high vowels. But it appears to me that although his own a may 
well be described as a front vowel, it is not quite the normal French 
a, but exceptionally far forward. It seems to my ear to approximate very 
closely to our English ae in pat, though it is generally acknowledged that 
the normal French a is about midway between the & in father and the sd 
in pat. 

The Front Vowels. 

§ 205. There are three front vowels in French which are 
not rounded and may be considered normal sounds, namely, 
the open e in pres, the close e in e"te, and i as in fini. They 
correspond, roughly speaking, with English e, ey, i in fairy, 
fate, feet. 

The French, who use their lips in speaking much more than 
we do, draw back the corners of the mouth and lengthen the 
opening to form the sound i, and this they do in a less degree 
for e and e. 

§ 206. i in fini. The sound i in French may be long, as in 
abime, pire, rive (abi:m, pi:r, ri:Y), or short, as in fini, vie, 
lime, gite, vif, triste (fini, vi, lim, jit, vif, trist). Special 
attention must be paid to the short i, which does not exist in 
English. For our short i in pit is very different, being a wide 
vowel, and much more open than the long i. French fini is 
not at all like English finny. 

§ 207. Close e in 6U never occurs in close syllables and is 
never long. It is therefore shorter than English ey in fate, 



140 French Analysis. ['§§ 208-210. 

they, and it does not end with an i sound like ey, which is 
almost a diphthong. The nearest approach to it in English is 
the shortened ey sometimes met with in unaccented syllables, 
as in survey (sb.). 

We meet with e in parler, nez, pied, ble, j'ai, donnai, gai 
(parle, ne, pye, ble, je, done, ge). 

§ 208. Open e in pres is nearly the same as e in English 
fairy (feri), but for all that it is difficult for English people to 
pronounce well. It is long in tete, reve, fer, vert, terre, frere, 
chaise, neige, reine (te:t, re:v, fe:r, ve:r, te:r, fre:r, che:z, ne:j, 
re:n), and short in tel, href, herbe, net (tel, bref, herb, net). 

It is more open than our e in pet, but slightly less open 
than our e in Mary, fairy. When it is long, there is a diffi- 
culty in pronouncing it arising from the English habit of 
always following it by r or a, generally by a, thus forming the 
diphthong ea, as in fairy (feri or feari), tearing (tering or 
tearing), fares, cares, wears, tears (feaz, keaz, weaz, teaz). 
We find it hard, therefore, to pronounce it in any other 
position. We have to aim at prolonging the first sound in 
air (ea(r)) without altering it in any way, as this will give us a 
vowel almost identical with the Erench long e. 

The Back-eound Vowels. 

§ 209. There are in French three back-round vowels, corres- 
ponding with the three front vowels e, e, i, namely, open o in 
homme, close 6 in drole, and ou in tout. The open o is not 
nearly so open as our 6 in Paul or o in pot, but, roughly 
speaking, Erench 6 corresponds with ow in pole, and ou with 
u in pool. 

Here again the Erench use their lips much more than we 
do, not only contracting and rounding them, but also projecting 
them forward considerably for ou, and in a less degree for o 
and 6. 

§ 210. ou in tout. French ou may be long, as in rouge, 
jour, amour (rou:j, jou:r, amou:r), or short, as in loup, tousse, 



§§ 211-213.] The Front-round Vowels. 141 

gout (lou, tous, gou). When long, it is almost the same as 
English u in food, but it is equally close throughout, not getting 
gradually closer like our u. Short ou is just as close as long 
ou, and must not be made like our u in put, pull, etc., which 
is a wide vowel and much more open. The nearest approach 
we have to French short ou is our short u in open syllables, 
e.g., in influence, instrument, into (intu). 

§ 211. Close 6 in drole. English students must be careful 
not to let this sound become diphthongal, like the English ow 
in pole. They should also observe that French 6 is not quite 
identical with the first element of English ow, though it is not 
easy to define the difference, which is easier to hear than to 
imitate. It requires very careful attention and imitation from 
those who aim at speaking French as well as possible. It is 
long in rose, chose, trone, cote (ro:z, cho:z, tro:n, ko:t), and 
short in mot, saut, tdt, cote, aussi, rideau (mo, SO, to, kote, 
6si, rido). 

§ 212. Open o in homme. This sound is not very easy. 
It is long in corps, loge (ko:r, lo:j), and short in trop, sol, robe, 
album (tro, sol, rob, albom). It differs from English 6 in 
Paul and o in pot in two respects. In the first place it is not 
nearly so open as our open o's, which indeed are quite abnormal 
sounds. So far, it corresponds with the German o in Sonne. 
But it differs from the English and German sounds in being 
less clearly and distinctly a back vowel. It seems intermediate 
between o in Sonne and eu in peur, and some people regard it 
as a mixed vowel. 

The Front-kound Vowels. 

§ 213. These vowels are found in German as well as in 
French, but we do not meet with them in English or in Italian. 
They may be regarded as abnormal vowels. They are formed, 
like the ordinary front vowels e, e and i, by the front of the 
tongue approaching the hard palate, but at the same time the 
lips are rounded as for the back-round vowels o, 6, ou. 



142 French Analysis. [§§ 214-215. 

§ 214. The French vowels belonging to this series are three 
in number, corresponding with the two sets of vowels just 
mentioned, viz., eu, eu and u, as in peur, pen, pu (peu:r, peu, 
pu). It is best to begin by learning to pronounce u, which is 
not difficult if we first sound i, and then, without stopping the 
voice or altering the position of the tongue, bring our lips into 
the position for ou. 

In like manner a rounded e will form eu, and a rounded e 
will become eu, but the sound eu is certainly more difficult 
than u. The sound of eu is very like our English unrounded 
oe in burn (boen), though these two vowels differ considerably 
in their formation. 

Examples of eu, eu and u : — 

eu is long in heure, veuve, fleuve, co&ur, ceil, accueil (heu:r, 
Yeu:v, fleu:Y, keu:r, eu:y, akeury), and short in seul, jeune, 
ceuf, cueillir (seul, jeun, euf, keuyir). 

eu is long in creuse, neutre, emeute, jetme (kreu:z, neu:t c r, 
emeu:t, jeu;n), and short in peu, queue, veut, deux (peu, keu, 
Yeii, deu). 

u is long in pur, ruse, sur, eurent (pu:r, ru:z, su:r, u:r), and 
short in vue, lune, eu, eumes, eutes (yu, lun, u, um, ut). 

The Foub Nasal Vowels. 

§ 215. In forming most vowel sounds, the passage of the 
breath through the nose is stopped by raising the soft palate, 
so that it issues through the mouth alone. But if, in pro- 
nouncing any vowel, the soft palate is lowered, allowing the 
breath to escape partly by the nose and partly by the mouth, 
the vowel becomes nasal. There are no nasal vowels in the 
best English, except in loan words borrowed from French ; but 
in French the four vowels, a, e, o, eu, are liable to be nasalised, 
thus forming the four nasal vowels which occur in pan, pin, 
pont, un, and which in this scheme are represented by B,n, en, 
on, ewi. 



§ 216.] Vowels in Unaccented Syllables. 143 

One of these symbols, namely, qu for the sound in pin, will probably 
seem strange, but it should be remembered that in rien, bien, chien, 
Amiens, pensum, and many other words, the symbol for it is en. 

Frenchmen, as well as students of other nations, are apt to 
fancy that a sound of n is heard in these nasal vowels. They 
are, however, simple vowel sounds, and it is only when there is 
a liaison with a following vowel that any consonant is heard. 

When there is a liaison, add an n in ordinary type, thus : — 
mon enfant (mown awfaw). 

Examples of the Nasal Yowels : — 

aw : — an, champ, plante (aw, shaw, pla^:t). 

en : — fin, mince, soin, grimper, plaindre, faim, plein, bien, 
rien, pensum (few, me%:s, swew, grewpe, plew:d e r, fen, plew, 
byew, ryew, pewsom). 

on : — rond, conte, nom (row, kow:t, now). 

euw : — ww, parfum, jeun (euw, parfeuw, jeuw). 

When there is a liaison, some speakers denasalise these 
vowels altogether, and they always lose more or less of their 
nasality. 

It may be worth noting that some of the French nasal vowels differ 
from the oral vowels on which they are based in being more open. §n at 
least is unquestionably more open than e. My own observations led me 
to conclude that it was the English se nasalised before I had studied any 
books on French phonetics, and it still seems to me nearer to this sound 
than to the French e. But on is hardly as open as o in foomme. Perhaps, 
though pretty nearly on a level with this o, it may really be derived from 
the closer 6 in clrole. 

Vowels in Unaccented Syllables. 

§ 216. There are three vowels which occur only in un- 
accented syllables and are always short. The most important 
of these is : — 

The Natural Yowel e in le. e is called the French natural 
vowel, because when Frenchmen hesitate in speaking and 
simply let the voice go on without attempting to modify it, 



144 French Analysis. [§ 217. 

this is the sound they utter. It is not quite the same as a in 
villa which Englishmen use in the same way, the French sound 
being a little closer and slightly rounded. 1 

There is not much difference in sound between French eu 
and e, but it is convenient to use different symbols for them, 
because there is this important distinction, that eu may be long 
and accented, whilst e is always unaccented and short, and is 
also very often elided. 

Examples of e : — je, me, le, de, ne, degre, faisant, faisons, 
faisais (fezaw, fezon, feze). 

§ 217. Two other Unaccented Yowels. There are two 
other vowels occurring in unaccented syllables only, namely, 
one intermediate between e and e, e.g., in maison, which is not 
precisely = mezow or mezo^, and another which is between o 
and 6, e.g., in comment (komaw or koma^). There is no need 
to use special symbols for these sounds. They can be repre- 
sented by the characters e and o in a work which does not aim 
at making minute distinctions. These vowels are always short. 

1 F. Beyer says that it is closer than eu in peur, but not so close as efi 
in peu, and this appears to me to be correct. 



VIII. 

FBENCH SYNTHESIS. 

Accent. 

§ 218. The French language differs so much from English 
in the use of accent, i.e., stress or emphasis, that English 
students who have only paid attention to the pronunciation 
of particular words, and not to the accentuation of whole 
sentences, can only speak a miserable sort of English-French, 
totally different from the French language in the mouth of a 
native. Who has not heard English people say Pdrlez-vous 
frdngais ? or C&mment-vous pdrtez-vous ? with a strong accent 
on the first syllable of the principal words, bringing these out 
in sharp contrast to the remaining syllables, utterly regardless 
of French habits of accentuation ? 

The first point to be observed with regard to accent in 
French is that there is no such well-marked contrast between 
accented and unaccented syllables as we find in English and in 
German. Dr. Abbott, in his Hints on Home Teaching, goes so 
far as to say that there is equal stress on all the syllables ; and 
although this is an exaggeration, it must be confessed that 
Frenchmen are not all agreed among themselves as to where 
the stress should fall. But happily there is not much difference 
of opinion among the leading phoneticians. 

Beginners must then be frequently reminded that in French 

the syllables should be all perfectly clear and distinct, like a 

row of pearls on a string, not weak and confused, with a few 

syllables coming into prominence here and there. This remark, 

(145) 10 



146 French Synthesis. [§ 219. 

which applies to the spoken language, must not, however, be 
understood to mean that everything which appears as a syllable 
in the ordinary spelling is to be clearly pronounced as such. 
In the spoken language the vowel e very frequently disappears, 
petit is pronounced pti, or if a vowel follows, ptit, and in je ne 
sais pas the vowel of ne is lost, and so on. And in all such 
cases the syllable is lost also, for French has no syllabic con- 
sonants like English, 1', m', n' in trouble, criticisM, open. 

The French accent laws differ also from the English in 
these particulars : — 

(a) The syllables which bear the accent or stress are not 
necessarily the same as those on which the voice is raised to a 
higher pitch. This has occasioned some difficulty in ascer- 
taining where the accent really does fall. 

(b) The accent, as a general rule, is not logical, that is, it 
does not serve to distinguish the principal words in the 
sentence. 

The rule which governs French accentuation is a very 
simple one, and soon stated, but it requires great attention on 
the part of English people to carry it out in practice. It is as 
follows : — 

§ 219. Rule for French Accentuation. The accent falls 
on the last syllable in each sentence or breath group ; and if 
the breath group is a long one, it is broken up, at the discretion 
of the speaker, into several accent groups, each one of which 
ends with an accented syllable. 

So in the two phrases given above — Komaw you porte 
you ? and Parle you frawse ? — the last syllable of each phrase 
should have the stress, whilst the other syllables are made as 
equal as possible. 

The following sentence, taken from M. Passy's Le Francais 
Parle, shows how longer sentences are broken up into accent 
groups, the last syllable of each group bearing the accent : — 
S etet eurai om | de ho:t nesaws, | don 1 ton [ n ete pa move, | 
me ky ete | korowpu | par la Yanite | e par la moles. 



§§ 220-222.] Quantity. 147 

The most important exception to this rule is that when the 
last syllable has the vowel e, the accent falls on the preceding 
syllable. 

It should be observed also that a logical accent is occa- 
sionally used in French as in English, to mark an antithesis. 
F. Beyer gives as examples, " donner et pardonner" ; " pagina 
n'est pas le, mais la page en francais ". 

§ 220. Secondary Accents are met with in words where 
the final vowel which bears the principal accent is immediately 
preceded by a long vowel. This long vowel then becomes half 
long, and takes a secondary accent. Exx. : — baron, bdton, 
chdteau, passer, raison, and words ending in -asion, -ation, 
-assion and -ision. 

§ 221. The Accents in Poetry. It is evident that French 
poetry cannot be scanned like English poetry. Theoretically, 
there is a fixed number of syllables in each line, but in point of 
fact these syllables are not all heard, many of the final syllables 
in e being omitted, though the readers sometimes fancy that 
they scrupulously pronounce them according to rule. There 
are different theories as to the principle of rhythm observed in 
French poetry. M. Passy's theory is that although the number 
of syllables is variable, there is a fixed number of accent groups 
in each line, and the division of the lines into accent groups is 
shown in the specimens of poetry in M. Passy's Les Sons du 
Franqais and Le Frangais Parle. 

Quantity. 

§ 222. Here again we are met by the difficulty that phone- 
ticians are not all agreed as to the laws of quantity in the 
French language. And certainly the differences of quantity or 
length, like those of accent, are not so clearly marked in the 
French language as they are in English and German. More- 
over, the dialects of French differ as to the length of certain 
syllables, e.g., the first syllables of beaucoup and comment. It 
is in accented syllables that the difference between long and 



148 French Synthesis. [§§223,224. 

short vowels is most apparent, and that there is a general 
agreement in the uses of the various dialects. 

As regards quantity, French vowels may be divided into 
three classes. 

Class I. Two vowels which are always short : — e and e. 

Class II. Seven vowels : — a, 6, eu, wi, Qn, on, ewi, which 
are more frequently long than any others, and may be called 
long by nature. Note that these consist of the three which, in 
this scheme, are marked with a circumflex, and the four nasal 
vowels. 

Class III. The remaining seven vowels : — a, e, i, 0, ou, 
eu, u. 

§ 223. As regards Class I., reasons can be given why e and 
e are always short, namely, that e is always unaccented, and 
that, although e may have an accent, it never occurs in a 
position where, by rule, other vowels would be long, that is, 
not before a final consonant. 

Three rules concerning quantity apply equally to the vowels 
in Classes II. and III. 

First, all final vowels are short, as in tot, pas, joue, vie (to, 
pa, jou, yi). 

Secondly, vowels in accented syllables, followed by a single 
final consonant, are long, if that consonant is r or one of the 
soft continuants. Exx. : — cave, ruse, cage, travail, soleil, rare 
(ka*.Y, ru:z, ka:j, traYa:y, solery, ra:r or ra:r). 

And thirdly, all vowels are generally long when they occur, 
followed by a consonant, in the final syllables of words borrowed 
from foreign languages. Exx. : — iris (iri:s), blocus (bloku:s), 
Minos (Mino:s). 

Liaison does not lengthen a vowel, apparently because the 
consonant is pronounced as though it belonged to the following 
word : — il n'est pas ici (inepa zisi). 

§ 224. The vowels in Class II. — a, 5, eu, and the nasal 
vowels — when accented and followed by any one or two con- 
sonants, are long : — cote, passe, jetme, fonte, pente, pdtre, apotre 



§§ 225, 226.] Intonation. 149 

(ko:t, pa:s, jeu:n, fow:t, paw:t, pa:t'r, apo:t e r). Exceptions 
in the case of a: — froide, froisse, paroisse (fpwad, frwas, 
parwas). 

Here again vowels are not lengthened by liaison : — tant et 
phis (taw teplus). 

§ 225. The vowels in Class III. — a, e, i, o, ou, eu, u — 

followed by any consonant other than a soft continuant or r, 
may be long or short, but they are most frequently short. One 
only, namely e, may be indifferently long or short in such a 
position. Exx. : — mdtre (met'r), maitre (me:t'r) ; saine (sen), 
Seine (se:n) ; renne (pen), reine (pern) ; tette (tet), tete (te:t). 

It is worth noting also that the vowels in tons (toir.s), boite 
(bwa:t), serve to distinguish these words from tousse (tons), 
boite (bwat). 

In unaccented syllables, long vowels generally become half- 
long, and as a rule their length can then be left unmarked, but 
it is worth while to distinguish the half-long vowels in the 
participles tirant (ti:raw), couvant (kou:Yaw), from the short 
ones in the substantives tyran (tiraw), convent (kouYaw). 

Intonation. 

§ 226. We have seen that French syllables differ but slightly 
from one another in accent and quantity. And yet the effect of 
spoken French is not monotonous, owing to the well-marked 
modulations of the voice. English students, and those of other 
nations also, find the French intonation extremely difficult to 
imitate, so that it is often the one thing wanting to those who, 
in other respects, pronounce French almost like a native. And 
unfortunately but little can be done by means of symbols to 
show the rising and falling of the voice. 

The chief points of contrast to be observed between the 
English and French systems of modulation are these : — 

(1) In French the voice rises and falls through much larger 
intervals than in English, producing a greater contrast between 
the high and low syllables. 



150 French Synthesis. [§§ 227, 228. 

(2) Whereas in English, sentences which are not interroga- 
tive fall at the close, French sentences often, and indeed most 
frequently, rise at the end, even when they are not interroga- 
tive, in a manner which sounds very strange to English ears. 

(3) The English rule that accented syllables rise in pitch 
does not prevail in French, where a syllable may rise without 
being accented, or be accented without rising. This fact is said 
to be the explanation of the difference of opinion concerning 
the accent in French, those syllables which are higher in pitch 
appearing to be accented when this really is not the case. 

Syllables. 

§ 227. We have seen that in English a consonant may 
sometimes form the nucleus of a syllable, as in troubles, opened 
(troebl'z, owpn'd), where 1 and n are syllabic. But in French 
there are no syllabic consonants, and every syllable must have 
a vowel. And as there are no diphthongs in French, the rule 
is that there are as many syllables as there are vowels. 

Such combinations as ui 9 wa, wan, ya, ye, etc., are indeed 
sometimes reckoned as diphthongs, but the first sound in each 
of them is generally pronounced as a consonant. M. Passy at 
least reekons them as such, and lays down the rule that the 
number of vowels and of syllables is the same. 

§ 228. Syllable Division. In French, as many consonants 
as possible are joined with the vowel that follows, and this rule 
holds good when final consonants are followed by a vowel in 
the next word. The syllables are divided quite irrespectively 
of word division. Exx. : — tapis, cadeau, tableau, insensibilite, 
quel age a-t-il ? are divided thus : — ta-pi, ka-do, ta-bld, en- 
san-si-bi-li-te, ke-la-ja-til ? 

This French habit is very confusing to foreigners, for the 
words all run into one another, so that it is impossible for the 
ear to detect where one word ends and another begins. In 
English, on the other hand, a new word almost always begins 
a new syllable. 



§§ 229-231.] Liaison. 151 

§ 229. Open Syllables. It follows from the rule for syllable 
division that French syllables are almost always open, that is, 
they end in a vowel. The vowel e never occurs in close 
syllables ; so although it is heard in j'ai (je), it is changed to 
e in ai-je (ej). The French Academy have recognised this law 
by altering colUge, siege, in the last edition of their dictionary, 
to college, siege. 

Liaison. 

§ 230. As in French open syllables are preferred, and com- 
binations of consonants are avoided, many final consonants 
which were formerly pronounced, are now silent, unless a 
vowel follows in the next word. And when such final con- 
sonants are sounded, there is said to be a "liaison". Cp. les 
chevaux (le cnvo), un grand chien (ewi gvwi chyew), with les 
hommes (lez oni), un grand homme (eun grawt om). 

We have parallel cases in English, as the n of an is never used unless 
a vowel follows, and it is only before a vowel in the next word that final 
r is ever heard. 

Observe the change of consonants in (lez om, eun grawt 
om), neuf heures (neuY eu:r), un sang impitr (ewi sawk 
ewpu:r), s and f being changed to z and y, and d and g to t 
and k respectively. The rule is that in liaison continuants 
become soft and stops become hard. 

§ 231. Many more liaisons are made in careful reading than 
in ordinary speech. It is very difficult for foreigners to know 
when to make a liaison. The following rules are from Mr. 
Beuzemaker's French and German Journal, very slightly 
modified by M. Passy. They apply to colloquial French. 

The liaison should be used before vowels : — 

(1) Between articles and their nouns : — Lez arb'r. 

(2) Between nouns and preceding adjectives : — yoz awfaw, 
se moYez ekolye. But when the adjective follows the noun, 
it is not used in ordinary speech : — ewi gou orib'l, in elevated 
style, ewi gout orib'l, 



152 French Synthesis. [§ 232. 

(3) Between numerals and their nouns : — diz om, vewt 
ardwaz. 

(4) Between pronouns and verbs : — i(l) youz on done. 

(5) Between verbs and pronouns : — partet i(l), dit el, 
prenez an. 

(6) Between adverbs and adjectives or verbs : — trez aktif, 
pluz okupe. 

(7) Between prepositions and their complement : — chez el, 
sawz e(k)sku:z. 

(8) Between the words est, il, Us and a following vowel : — 
il et isi, iz on peur. 

Observe that il and Us are sounded i before a consonant, 
and il, iz, before a vowel. 

Monosyllables are oftener tied than longer words : — trez 
eraportara, but ase, or asez ewportaw ; and that when the first 
word already ends with a consonant, the liaison is generally 
omitted : — anver el. 

Elision. 

§ 232. There are some few cases in which elision is recog- 
nised in the ordinary French spelling, le and de being written 
V and d" before vowels, as in l' enfant, un verve d'eau. But 
elisions are far more frequent than the spelling would lead us 
to suppose. 

The only sound which is elided is e, and this usually dis- 
appears whenever it can be omitted without bringing too many 
consonants together. Examples of its disappearance in the 
middle of a word are : — petit (pti), second (zgon), mesure 
(mzu:r), demain (dmew). In an elevated style it is not so 
often omitted as in colloquial French. 

As a general rule, three consonants cannot come together 
in French without e intervening, but M. Passy observes that 
this rule has exceptions. He says : " When the third con- 
sonant is one of the following — 1, r, W, u, y, which may be 
called vowel-like consonants — three consonants are quite 



§§ 233, 234.] Hoiu Stops are Combined. 153 

natural: — Madam Blaw, kat plawsh, pom k^it. In some 
cases where the first consonant is one of these five, it is the 
same : — euwn ark-fooutaw ; indeed, in this way four con- 
sonants may be allowed : — sa marsh hjm. Forms such as 
opstine, un bel statu, nn graw:d statu, were originally 
artificial (popularly ostine, un foel estatu), but are now quite 
natural to educated people. 

The use of e to avoid awkward combinations of consonants 
is not limited to those words in which it is written. It may be 
heard, for instance, after arc in the phrase Varc de triomphe, 
and after est in Vest de la France. 

How Stops are Combined. 

§ 233. It is important to observe the different way in which 
the stops are combined in English and in French. We have 
noticed in § 116 how in English, when a stop is followed by 
another stop, or by a liquid, as in active, bacon (aektiv, foeykn'), 
the first consonant is implosive and not explosive, that is, it is 
heard only in the act of shutting. But if the French actif 
(aktif ) were pronounced in this way, a Frenchman would fail 
to hear the k. In such cases there should be a slight explosion, 
with a little escape of breath between the two consonants. 

Variations of Words ending in Voiceless m, 1 or r. 

§ 234. We have seen already (§§ 186, 190, 194) that some 
French words end with voiceless m, 1 or p, when not followed 
by another word in the same breath group. But these words 
have the provoking habit of going through a good many varia- 
tions under different circumstances. M. Passy writes to me 
that they are " une veritable scie". They are the words 
commonly spelt with the endings -le, -re, -me, preceded by a 
consonant, such as peuple, table, spectacle, souffle, propre, 
arbre, autre, tendre, livre, souffre, rhumatisme. 

All such words have three different forms, and some have 
four, according to their position in the sentence. Speaking 
generally, the terminations of these words are : — 



154 French Synthesis. [§ 234. 

(1) 1, e r, c m at the end of the breath group. 

(2) 1, r, m before a vowel. 

(3) le, re, me before a consonant, or else 

(4) 1 and r are altogether dropped before a consonant. 
When English people are in doubt whether to use 3 or 4, it 

is safer to use 3, and pronounce le and re before a consonant. 

The first set of endings hardly needs further illustration, as 
we meet with them whenever a word of this class is isolated, or 
at the end of a sentence, or of any breath group. But in 
familiar conversation 1 and r are often dropped altogether, and 
we hear peup, kat, for peupl, kat c r, and M. Passy says that 
in dogme he pronounces a voiced m. 

The rule for the second set appears to be invariable, final 
m, 1 and r being always voiced when followed by a vowel in 
the next word, as in la Bibl awtye:r, nio^ p6:vr ami. 

The perplexing point is to know what ending should be 
used when a consonant follows in the next word. The general 
rule is to have voiced m, 1 or r followed by the obscure vowel 
e, so as to prevent three or more consonants coming together, 
as in rumatisme kronik, sa propre la%:g, table d 6:t, but 
there are many exceptions. In this position m is not liable to 
be dropped altogether by people who pronounce carefully, 
though pris, rumatis, etc., are often vulgarly used; but even 
those who pride themselves on speaking correctly often drop 1, 
and still more frequently r, in familiar conversation, e.g., in 
kat person, not tabl, pov garsow / pour pra?*:d ko?zje. In 
compounds such as met d otel, eun kat plas, r is invariably 
dropped. There is also a third form in use before a consonant, 
voiceless m, 1 and r being sometimes used in this position. 

M. Passy observes that some French people use syllabic 1 
at the end of a breath group, or before a consonant, but he con- 
siders this abnormal. When we anglicise such an expression 
as table d'hote, syllabic 1 is, of course, quite allowable, and it 
would be affectation to try to avoid it, but it ought not to be 
used in speaking French, 



IX. 

GEKMAN ANALYSIS. 

§ 235. The sounds of German are easier to master than 
those of French, partly because they are more like English 
sounds, and partly because the spelling is more regular, and 
consequently a better guide to the pronunciation. And if 
French has already been acquired, some of those sounds which 
do not occur in English will have been learnt already. 

Standard Geeman. 

§ 236. The great differences in pronunciation between the 
natives of different parts of Germany must be obvious to every 
one. It has been usual for English people to accept the pro- 
nunciation of Hanover as the best German, but the Germans 
themselves are of a different opinion, and ridicule the Hano- 
verians for their provincialisms. But although provincialisms 
are to be met with in all parts of Germany, there is happily a 
pretty general consensus of opinion as to what is the best 
German. It is the language of the stage, that is the pro- 
nunciation of north Germany, free from provincialisms, which 
may be accepted as standard German, and this it is which all 
foreigners should try to acquire. 

There are, indeed, some few points which may be regarded 
as open questions, and Prof. Vietor, whose pronunciation I have 
followed throughout, accordingly gives some alternative forms, 
shown in the footnotes to the specimens of German. These 

(155) 



156 German Analysis. [§ 237. 

forms are what I myself use, and they will be found easier for 
English pupils than those given in the text. 1 

§ 237. German Consonants Illustrated. 

Symbols. Examples. 

p p, pp, b Paar (pa:r), "pair"; Bappe (rape), 

" black horse" ; ab fap), "off". 
b b Balm (ba:n), "track," "railway". 

t t,tt,th,d,dt Tau (tau), "rope"; fett (fat), 

"fat"; Thai (ta:l), "valley"; 

Hand (hant), "hand"; Stadt 

(shtat), "town". 
d d du (du:), "thou". 

k k, cJc, ch, q, c hahl (ka:l), " bald " ; dick (dik), 

" thick " ; Achse ( J akse), " axle " ; 

Quelle (kYale), "well," "spring"; 

Cognac (konjak), " cognac ". 
g g gut (gu:t), "good"; vergehen (far- 

ge:en), "pass away". 
No symbol used all ('al), "all"; ilberall ( ? ii:ber'al), 

"everywhere " ; abirren ('aip'iren), 

" swerve ". 
m m, mm mir (mi:r), " to me " ; Lamm (lam), 

"lamb". 
n n, nn nie (ni:), "never"; Mann (man), 

" man ". 
ng ng, n sing en (zingen), " sing " ; lang (lang), 

" long " ; Dank (dangk), "thanks ". 
1 I, 11 lahm (la:m), "lame"; voll (fol), 

"full". 

1 As these alternative forms, with stopped instead of open consonants, 
for g medial and final, are used on the stage and have been gaining ground 
for some time among educated speakers, I myself have given them the 
preference in recent publications, such as Aussprache des Schriftdeutschcn, 
4th edition, and Lcsebuch in Lautschrift. — Ed. 



§ 237.] German Consonants Illustrated. 157 

Symbols. Examples. 

r or r 2 r, rr rauh (rau), "rough"; Narr (nar), 

"fool". 
w (not = Eng. w) used by some Germans instead of y in 

w, u schwer (shwe:r), " heavy " ; quer 

(kwe:r), " crosswise ". 
f f,ff,v Fall (fal), "fall"; Schiff (shif), 

"ship"; viel (fi:l), "much". 
Y w, u wohl (yo:1), "well"; Qual (kYa:l), 

" torture ". 
s s, ss, ss List (list), " stratagem " ; Kasse 

(kase), " cash " ; Fuss (fu:s), 

"foot". 
S (in the combinations ts and ks). 

ts z, tz, t, c, besides zu (tsu:), "to," " too " ; Satz (zats), 

ts, tss, etc. " sentence " ; Nation (natsiom), 

" nation " ; cis (tsis), " C sharp ". 
ks x, besides ks, chs, Axt ('akst), " axe ". 

etc. 
z s so (zo:), " so ". 

sh sch, s scharf (sharf), "sharp"; sprechen 

(shpracen), " speak " ; stehen 

(shte:en), "stand". 
zh j, g, ge Journal (zhurna:l), "journal"; Logis 

(lo:zhi:), " lodging " ; Sergeant 

(zarzhant), " sergeant ". 
q ch, g ich ('ig), "I"; solch (zoIq), "such"; 

Sieg (zi:k or zi:§), " victory " ; 

Berg (bark or bar§), "mountain". 
j (Eng. y) j, i, g ja (ja:), " yes " ; Familie (fami:lje), 

"family"; Siege (zi:ge or zi:je), 

" victories " ; Berge (barge or 

barje), " mountains " ; regnen 

(re:gnen or re:jnen), "rain". 



158 German Analysis. [§§ 238, 239. 

Symbols. Examples. 

x ch, g ach ('ax), " ah " ; Buck (bu:x), 

" book " ; Tag (ta:k or ta:x), 
" day " ; zog (tso:k or tso:x), 

" drew " (sing.). 
g g Tage (ta:ge or ta#:e), "days"; zogen 

(tso:gen or tso:#en), " drew " 

(plur.). 
h h Hand (hant), " hand ". 

This list gives only the symbols which occur in German 
words, and those used for the foreign sound zh. Other 
symbols, used in loan words borrowed from French and other 
languages, are given in Dr. Vietor's German Pronunciation, 
but this simpler list may be useful in teaching children, who 
ought not, at first, to be troubled with exceptions. 

Six New Consonants. 

§ 238. Most of the German consonants are identical with, 
or very similar to, those used in English, but there are six new 
consonants, namely, ('), r 2 , w, c, x, g. We shall see, however, 
that of these, three are really superfluous, so that English 
students need only learn to pronounce the three following : — 
C),c,x. 

§ 239. The Glottal Stop, for which we use the symbol ('), 
is formed by bringing the vocal chords together, so as to close 
the glottis, and then suddenly opening them with an explosion, 
as is done in coughing or clearing the throat. It is not a sound 
difficult to produce, but as it is not ordinarily written, Germans 
and others who have not studied phonetics, generally fail to 
observe it. A German master told me that when he repeated 
the vowels to classes of English children, they always laughed, 
and he was puzzled by this until it was pointed out to him that 
in so doing he sounded an emphatic glottal stop before each 
vowel, producing an effect very strange to English ears. 

Students must be very careful not to forget to pronounce 
this consonant. It occurs before all initial vowels, as well as 



§§ 240-242.] Six Neio Consonants. 159 

in the second part of compounds like ilberall, abirren. But in 
compounds which are no longer felt to be such, like allein, 
daraus, heraus, hinaus, it is omitted, as also in phrases where 
little words are closely connected with the preceding word, and 
consequently unaccented, e.g., in will ich, hat er, muss es. 1 

§ 240. r 2 . This guttural r, formed with the back of the 
tongue and the uvula, is the same as the r generally used in 
Paris, and has been discussed in § 192. Many Germans have 
substituted it for the r formed with the point of the tongue, and 
the use of it is spreading in Germany ; but it is not as yet 
heard in the best German, and there are some Germans who 
omit final r altogether, substituting for it some sort of vowel 
sound. This also is a practice to be avoided. 

§ 241. The Simple Lip Continuant w. This again is a 
sound which it is not necessary to use in German, as it is a 
substitute for y, and though frequent, is by no means universal 
amongst careful speakers. It is heard in the combinations 
written schw, qu and zw, e.g., in schwer, quer and zwei, and pro- 
nounced either (shw, kw, tsw) or (shy, kv, tsv). It is not a 
difficult sound to pronounce, being formed by simply bringing 
the lips together, without rounding them or raising the back 
of the tongue, as is done in pronouncing English w. It differs 
also from English w in being very often voiceless. 

The reason for drawing attention to this sound is that it 
may easily be mistaken for English w, which ought never to 
be substituted for it. German Quell must be distinguished 
from English quell. It is best to pronounce y (1) wherever w 
is written, and (2) where u is found in the combination qu. 

The corresponding voiced sound is used in South Germany, 
e.g., in the word Wesen. 

§ 242. The Palatal Continuant c, commonly called the ich 
sound, is quite distinct from the back continuant x, called the 
ach sound. It is sometimes heard in English hue, and we have 

1 In South Germany, the glottal stop is, as a rule, not used. — Ed. 



160 German Analysis. [§ 243-245. 

met with it in French pied, where the sign used for it was 'y. 
In some combinations it is difficult to pronounce, especially- 
after r, as in the words durch and Furcht. 

C always occurs after a front vowel or a consonant, except 
in a few foreign words, such as Charon. 

There are some instances in which it may be questioned 
whether c or k should be used, namely, those in which g final 
is written after a front vowel or a consonant. Prof. Vietor says 
that two-thirds of German speakers use c in such cases, and 
that in the termination -ig, as in Konig, the g sound is almost 
universal. 1 

Except the termination -ig, the case is quite analogous to 
that of medial g ; that is to say, either q or k may be used. 
But ik for -ig final is quite a provincialism. 

§ 243. The Back Continuant x. This consonant, the so- 
called ach sound, may be heard in the Scotch loch. Like u, 
it is formed with the back of the tongue approaching the soft 
palate. It occurs only after back vowels. 

§ 244. The Voiced Back Continuant g. This differs from 
the last sound only in being voiced. It is somewhat difficult 
to pronounce, but is always allowable to use g in its place. 2 
It occurs only after back vowels, and is always medial, as in 
Wagen, Bogen. 

Familiak Consonants. 

§ 245. A few points concerning these demand our attention, 
for some of them differ in formation or in use from our English 
consonants. 

The Point Consonants t, d, n, 1, sh, r, are somewhat 
different from the corresponding sounds in English. German 
t, d, n, 1 are formed with the point of the tongue only, whilst 
in English t, d, n the blade, or part immediately behind the 
point, seems to be raised also ; and in forming English 1 the 

1 On the stage k is used, except in the termination -ig, which has g 
(but g in -ige, etc.). See footnote, p. 156. — Ed. 

2 This is the stage pronunciation. — Ed. 



§§ 246, 247.] Familiar Consonants. 161 

back of the tongue is raised as well as the point. So students 
must endeavour to use the point only in forming all these 
consonants. 

German sh is formed, Prof. Vietor says, by a broad stream 
of breath passing between the teeth, whilst the lips are some- 
what protruded ; but in English sh the lips are not protruded, 
and the blade of the tongue is made to approach the hard 
palate, leaving a central channel for the breath. 1 

It is usual in Hanover, and in some other parts of Germany, 
to substitute s for sh in words beginning with the written 
symbols sp and st, such as sprechen, stehen ; but this is a 
mistaken attempt to follow the spelling, and ought not to be 
imitated. 

r in German is more distinctly trilled than in English, and 
in the best German it does not lengthen, or modify in any way, 
the vowels which precede it. It is difficult for English people 
to pronounce it when final or followed by a consonant ; and the 
worst mistakes of English students of German are generally 
due to their habits of omitting it, and allowing it to modify 
preceding vowels in their own language (see § 108). 

h is always pronounced. Illiterate speakers do not drop it 
as they do in England. 

§ 246. Final Consonants are Hard. The only exceptions 
to this rule are the liquids m, n, ng, 1, r; for though many 
words are spelt with final b, d, g, Y, the sounds heard in such 
cases are p, t, c or x (or k instead of c and x), and f, as in ab, 
Hand, Sieg, Berg, Tag, zog, Motiv. 

§ 247. Final Consonants are Short. It is very necessary 
to draw the pupils' attention to this fact ; for in English, after 
short vowels, final consonants are lengthened, and to do the 
same in German would be a bad mistake. It is particularly 
important to avoid lengthening final liquids. Pronounce the 
final consonants in such words as Lamm, Mann, lang, Narr, 
voll as abruptly as possible. 

1 Also in German sh, the blade of the tongue may be raised. — Ed, 

11 



162 German Analysis. [§ 248. 

§ 248. German Vowels Illustrated. 
Symbols. Examples. 

a: a, aa, ah da (da:), " there"; Aal ('a:l), "eel"; nah 

(na:), "near". 
a: a, ah sden (za:en), " sow " ; mdhen (ma:en), 

"mow". 
e: 0, ee, eh schwer (shveir), "heavy," "difficult "; Beet 

(be:t), " flower-bed " ; Beh (re:), " roe ". 
i, ie, ih, ieh mir (mi:r), " to me " ; sie (zi:), " she " ; ihn 
(i:n), " him " ; Vieh (fi : ), " cattle ". 
so (zo:), "so"; Boot (bo:t), "boat"; roh 

(ro:), "raw," "rude". 
du (du:), " thou " ; Kuh (ku:), " cow ". 
schon (shd'.n), " beautiful " ; Hohle (hb:le), 

"cave". 
fur (fii:r), " for " ; kilhn (kti:n), " bold ". 
ab ('ap), "off", 

Gizbotn (gebo:te), "commandments". 
/est (fast), " fast," " firm " ; Hdnde (hande), 
"hands". 
i, ie mit (mit), " with " ; vierzehn (firtse:n), " four- 

teen ". 
oo ('op), "if," "whether". 
Kunst (kunst), " art ". 
Gespott (geshpbt), "mockery". 
Hiltte (hute), "hut". 
Ei ('ai), " egg " ; Mai (mai), " may ". 
Au ('au), "mead," "meadow". 
Heu (hoi), "hay"; glaubig (gloibic), "be- 
Ueving ". 

The above list does not include symbols occurring only in 
loan words. It should be observed, however, that in French 
loan words we meet with four nasal vowels, a?i, e^, on, eun, 
the French symbols being retained in every case. Exx. : — 



i: 


h 


ie, \ 


o: 


o, 


00, 


u: 


u, 


uh 


6: 


o, 


oh 


ti: 


it, 


ilh 


a 


a 




e 


e 




a 


e, 


a 









u 


u 


6 


6 


u 


il 


ai 


ei, ai 


au 


au 


oi 


eu, du 



§§ 249, 250.] Long and Short Vowels. 163 

aw in Chance (sha%:se), "chance"; Trente-et-un (tra%:t-e Qun). 

m ,, Bassin (basew:), " basin " ; train (trew:), " baggage " (of 
an army) ; plein (ple^:), " full ". 

on ,, Ballon (balow;), " balloon ". 

euw„ Trente-et-un (traw:t-e:-euw:), parfum (parfeu^:), "per- 
fume ". 

Geeman Vowels Desceibed. 

§ 249. The German vowel scheme shown on p. xxiv. should 
be examined, and compared with the English and French 
schemes preceding it. We shall find that in some respects 
the German vowels are like the French, and that in others 
they resemble our own ; so that, to those who know the sounds 
of English and French, the mastery of the German vowels will 
prove to be a matter of small difficulty. Several of the English 
habits of speech which mislead students of French must be 
guarded against in German also ; therefore some of the warn- 
ings given in the chapters on French must be repeated here. 

Long and Shoet Vowels. 

§ 250. An inspection of the German scheme of vowels on 
p. xxiv. will show at once that here, as in English, the long and 
short vowels are distinct from one another, there being only 
two instances in which the corresponding long and short vowels 
are identical in sound. And the difference in each pair of 
corresponding long and short vowels is the same that we have 
noticed in English ; that is, the short vowel is formed with a 
relaxed and widened tongue, so that it is called wide, and it is 
also decidedly more open than the corresponding long vowel. 

The correspondence of the long and short vowels may be 
shown thus : — 

Long and Narrow. Short, Wide and more Open. 

e: as in geh a as in Hande 

i: ,, ihn \ ,, Sinn 



Lor 


ig and Narrow. 


o: 


as in Sohn 


u: 


,, Kuh 


6: 


,, Sohne 


ti: 


,, hilhn 




Long. 


a: 


as in lahm 


a: 


,, mcihen 



164 German Analysis. [§ 251. 

Short, Wide and more Open. 
as in Sonne 
u ,, dumm 
6 ,, honnen 
ti ,, dilnn 

Short and identical in sound. 
a as in Lamm 
a , , Manner 

The short vowel a appears twice in the above pairs of 
vowels, because, whilst it is identical in sound with the long 
a:, it bears the same relation to e: as the other short vowels do 
to the long ones most resembling them. 

There is no long vowel corresponding with the short e in 
Gabe. This short vowel is always unaccented. 

But whilst, in the distinction between long and short vowels, 
German is like English and unlike French, there are two points 
in which the vowels correspond with the French and differ 
from our own. For first, we have a series of front-round 
vowels, like the French in peur, peu, pu; and secondly, the 
German vowels do not, like the English, tend to become diph- 
thongs. 

Open Vowels. 

§ 251. The Open Yowels a:, a, as in lahm, Lamm. There 
is no difficulty in pronouncing the long vowel a:, as it is 
identical with English a in father. But a in Lamm, Mann, 
etc., must on no account be made like English a = se in lamb, 
man, for the sounds are quite different. It is, however, an 
easier vowel than French a in patte, because it is precisely 
like English a in father, only shorter, whilst the French a is, 
as we have seen, intermediate between a in father and ae in fat. 

When German a is unaccented, great care is needed to 
avoid altering the vowel and making it like English a in villa, 
servant, etc. It must be pronounced quite clearly, as in 
Niemand (nirmant), "nobody". 



§§ 252, 254.] Bach-round Vowels. 165 

Front Vowels. 

§ 252. The Front Yowels a:, a, e:. The easiest of these 
for English students is the short a, in Fest, Hande, which is 
the same as our e in pet. The sound must not be altered 
before r, as English people are apt to do, making German 
Herr like English her. 

German a:, as in stien, mahen, corresponds with French e, 
though the French sound is more open, and German e:, as in 
geh, with French e. Here, as in French, our difficulty arises 
from the English tendency to turn long vowels into diphthongs. 
We can obtain a sound sufficiently near to the open a: by 
omitting the final sound of English bear, and the close e:, by 
omitting the i sound at the end of obey. German Beh is not = 
English ray. 

The close German e: in sehr schiver, will be found " sehr 
schwer," i.e., very difficult, because r follows, and this com- 
bination is contrary to our English habits. 

§ 253. The Close Front Yowels i:, i. The short German 
i in Sinn, being = English i in pit, will be found very easy, 
except in the position where all German vowels are more or 
less difficult, i.e., before r, as in Hirt ; and the difference 
between the long German i; in ihn and English i in feet, is 
not very great. It is that English i begins with a more open 
sound and gradually becomes closer, whilst German i: is equally 
close throughout. 

Observe that though German i: is shortened in unaccented 
open syllables, its quality is not altered. So direht differs from 
English direct, the i being pronounced like our short unaccented 
i in the first syllable of eternal. 

The symbol ie for short i, as in vierzehn, is very rarely used. 

Back-round Vowels. 

§ 254. The Back-round Yowels o:, o, as in Sohn, Sonne. 
Both of these require attention. The long o: must not close 
with a sound of u, like English ow in bowl, but must be kept 



166 German Analysis. [§§ 255, 257. 

unchanged to the end, and it is not quite like the first part of 
our English ow, but apparently identical with French 6 in 
drole. See § 211. 

The short o is very decidedly more close than English o in 
pot ; it is nearer to French o in homme, but a little closer than 
the French o, and it has not, like French o, a leaning towards 
the front-round eu in peur, but is clearer, and more distinctly 
a back vowel. 

Both o: and o must be clearly pronounced before r, e.g., in 
Bohr, fort. 'The long o: is peculiarly difficult in this position. 
How distressed my excellent German mistress was, to be sure, 
at the ineffectual attempts of her pupils to pronounce her name, 
Frau Flohr ! The pronunciations were many and various, but 
it was most frequently pronounced like English flaw. 

The symbol oo for long o: is very rare. 

§ 255. The Close Back-round Yowels u:, u, as in Kuh, 
dumm. These are not difficult, the short u being the same as 
English u in put, and the long u: like English u in pool. But 
the long German u is close and unaltered throughout, whilst 
English u begins with a more open sound and is gradually 
closed. 

Feont-eound Vowels. 

§ 256. The Front-round Yowels 6:, 6, as in Sohne, konnen. 
These have no equivalent in English, being quite distinct from 
English oe in burn, which comes nearest to them in sound. 
The long 6: is the same as French eu in peu, except in the 
matter of length, for French eu may be short, as indeed it is 
in peu. 

The short 6 is more like French eu in peur, but it is some- 
what closer, and is always short, whilst French eu may be long, 
as it is in peur. 

The symbol 6 for d: is rare. 

§ 257. The Close Front-round Yowels ti:, ti, as in kiihn, 
dilnn. These also are missing in English, but ii: is = French 



§§ 258, 259.] Unaccented Voivels. 167 

u in pu, except that it is always long, while French u may be 
short, and is so in the word pu. 

The short u is decidedly more open than the long ii:, but 
this will not be difficult for English students, as we are 
accustomed to make our short vowels more open than the 
corresponding long ones. 

Unaccented Vowels. 

§ 258. Unaccented e. This mixed vowel is the natural 
vowel of German, that is to say, the vowel uttered by Germans 
when they simply emit the voice without any attempt to modify 
it. It is not identical either with the English natural vowel, 
unaccented a in villa, nor the French natural vowel e in le, 
but it approaches very nearly to our unaccented a. According 
to Dr. Sweet, the difference is that German unaccented e is 
narrow, whilst English a is wide. It appears to me that the 
German natural vowel is also somewhat closer than the 
English, as is generally the case with the narrow vowels 
when compared with the corresponding wide ones. It differs 
from French e in le in not being rounded. 1 

Pronounce German unaccented e somewhat like a in villa 
or e in silver, not like y in silly ; and take care not to add r 
when a vowel follows in the next word. English people are 
apt to do this, just as they often say in English, dhi aidi'ar 
a¥ it, but this is a very bad fault. 

§ 259. Other Unaccented Yowels. The other German 
vowels are not liable to change their sound when unaccented ; 
and as English unaccented vowels are usually reduced to the 
obscure sound of a in villa, special pains must be taken to pro- 
nounce them clearly in German. 

Attend particularly to unaccented a, and u, and do not 
make the last syllables of Anna, Jacob, Doktor, Fokus like 
those of English Anna, Jacob, doctor, focus. 

1 It is certainly neither narrow nor close in my pronunciation. It has 
more of the front e element (Eng. e in bet) than English a in villa, and 
differs from French e in le as stated in the text. — Ed. 



168 German Analysis. [§§ 260, 261. 

Diphthongs. 

§ 260. There are in German three diphthongs, in all of 
which the stress is upon the first element. They are as 
follows : — 

Symbols. Examples. 

ai ei, ai Ei, " egg " ; Mai, " May ". 

au an Au, " meadow ". 

oi en, au Hen, "hay"; gldubig (gloibic), "believing". 

These diphthongs are almost the same as the English ai, 
au, oi, in time, laud, noise. The points of difference to be 
observed are : — 

(1) In ai and au the first element is clearer. Make it like 
a in German Mann. 

(2) In oi the first element is closer, just as German o in 
Sonne is much closer than English o in pot. And the first 
element is never lengthened as it sometimes is in English, e.g., 
in oil. 1 

Nasal Vowels. 

§ 261. These are identical with the French nasal vowels, 
see § 215, and occur only in French loan words. We can 
use the symbols aw, en, on, eun to represent them. 

Germans are careful to distinguish between a,n and on, 
whilst most English people pronounce them both alike, as on. 

The nasal vowels are always long in German. In French 
they may be long or short. 

In North Germany the nasal vowels are often omitted, and ong or 
ang may be heard instead of the French nasal on or a?*-, etc. But this is 
not worthy of imitation. 

1 The second element is often u (stage pronunciation). — Ed. 



X. 



GEBMAN SYNTHESIS. 



Vowels followed by r. 



§ 262. As already observed, all the German vowels are diffi- 
cult to English students when they come before r, especially 
the long e: and o:, as in schwer, Ohr. Care must be taken not 
to alter the sound in any way, as we are apt to do in English, 
where we allow the preceding vowel to become a diphthong, as 
in pare, peer, pore, poor (cp. pale, peel, pole, pool), or to become 
a mixed, instead of a clear front or back, vowel, as in fern, fir, 
fur, word (cp. fell, fill, full, folly). 

It will be found useful to practise all the vowels in suc- 
cession, by pronouncing aloud the examples given below. The 
r must be slightly trilled in every case. 

a: 



a: 



e: 



paar 


e: 


Pferd 


6: 


horen 


i 


irren 


Art 


>> 


Schwert 


?> 


hort 





fort 


zart 


i: 


mir 


ii: 


fur 


»> 


Vorteil 


Bar 


>> 


dir 


J5 


spilren 


u 


Urteil 


Ahre 


j? 


ihr 


a 


hart 


>> 


durch 


Ehre 


o: 


Ohr 


>> 


warten 


>> 


Furcht 


Erde 


>» 


Moor 


a 


Herr 


6 


Morder 


erst 


u: 


Uhr 


>> 


Herz 


ii 


Biirde 


werden 


»> 


nur 


i 


Hirt 


e 


Mutter 



§ 263. Diphthongs and Triphthongs followed by r. We 

have observed how, in English, diphthongs followed by r are 

converted into triphthongs, e.g., in ire, our, employer (aia(r), 

aua(r), imploia(r)), § 106, 108.4. In German also we observe 

(169) 



170 German Synthesis. [§ 264. 

the same triphthongs occurring before final r, e.g., Eier faier), 
" eggs " ; Schleier (shlaier), " veil " ; sauer (zauer), " sour " ; 
Trauer (trauer), ''mourning"; Feuer (foier), "fire"; teuer 
(toier), "dear". But in such cases the third element of the 
diphthong is always written as e. 

We find, however, that when derivative or inflectional 
endings are added to words ending in auer or oier, the e 
disappears, and the r follows immediately after the diphthong, 
as in saures, "sour" (neut.) ; traurig, "mournful"; feurig, 
"fiery"; teures, "dear" (neut.). Cp. also eirund ('airunt), 
"oval". When this is the case, be careful to pass at once 
from the diphthong to the r. 

Quantity. 

§ 264. In German, as in English, the difference between 
long and short vowels is generally clearly marked, though long 
vowels are sometimes reduced to half-long. But in some 
respects the rules for quantity differ from ours, so that they 
need to be studied. The rules for the length of the vowels are 
as follow : — 

(1) Vowels are long at the end of words, whether they are 
accented or not. Exx. : — da, Emma, Athene ('ate:ne:), Salomo, 
Kahadu, the only exceptions being the final vowel e, and the 
words na, da, ja (interjections). 

(2) They are long (a) before a single consonant, i.e., before 
one which is written as single in the ordinary spelling, for 
when a double symbol follows, as in dilnn, fett, Wolle, the 
vowel is short, or (b) before a combination which can begin a 
syllable. Exx. : — ihn, filr, schwer, Mitra. Observe that in 
such cases the syllables become open if a vowel follows, as in 
ih-nen, schwe-re. 

(3) They are seldom long before combinations of consonants 
which cannot begin a syllable. In this case they remain closed 
when another syllable is added. Exx. of long vowels before 
such combinations are : — Mond, Magd, zart, Krebs, Pferd. 



§§ 265, 266.] Quantity. 171 

(4) In compound words, vowels which have a secondary 
accent are not shortened in consequence. Exx. : — Vorliebe, 
ausgeben, Abart, Abzug. 

(5) In unaccented open syllables, long vowels become half- 
long or even short, as i: in Militar and e: in Sekretdr. 

In German spelling the short vowels are often indicated by 
doubling the consonant which follows, as in satt, fallen, and 
the long ones by adding h, or doubling the vowel, or by some 
other device, as in Mehl, filhlen, Saat, dieser. 

§ 265. Mistakes to be avoided. It may be useful to guard 
against those mistakes in the quantity of the vowels to which 
English people are especially liable. 

(1) Do not make the long vowels half -long, when a hard 
consonant follows, because this is the rule in English. German 
vowels in such a case retain their full length. The vowels and 
diphthongs are half-long in English graced, note, goose, ice, out, 
but fully long in German gehst, Not, Gruss, Eis, laut. 

(2) In compound words be careful to make the vowel with 
the secondary accent long. See exx. above. 

(3) Make even unaccented vowels long if they happen to 
be final. See exx. above. 

(4) Do not lengthen a short vowel because r follows, though 
it is difficult for English people to avoid this, when the r is 
followed by another consonant, or final, as in ivarten, Bart, 
zart, hart, Hirt, Herr, Herz, Erbe, Urne. 

(5) When a long vowel is shortened to half-long, because it 
is not accented, do not on that account alter its quality and 
make it more open. The i in Militar should be pronounced 
like English i in eternal (itdenal) and e in Sekretdr nearly like 
English ey in chaotic (keyotik), but without the slight sound of 
y heard in English. 

§266. Length of Consonants. The consonants in German 
are never lengthened, except in compound words, such as 
mitteilen, Packkorb, Tauffeier, Still-leben, and even in such 
cases they are commonly short in conversational German. 



172 German Synthesis. [§ 267. 

English people must guard against lengthening the con- 
sonants after short vowels, as we habitually do in English. 
They should practice them in this position, pronouncing them 
as quickly and sharply as possible, e.g., in Sinn, Mann, Lamm, 
contrasted with English thin, man, lamb. 

Accent. 

§ 267. The accentuation of German words and sentences is 
almost identical with the accentuation of English, and does not 
present much difficulty. The principal rules are as follows : — 

(1) The stem syllable, being the most significant, bears the 
principal accent. This rule is almost universal in words not 
borrowed from foreign languages. The chief exceptions are 
that the particles, in some compound words, take the principal 
accent. Exx. : — Antiuort, unwohl, Ursache, ausgeben, in each 
of which the first syllable is accented. 

(2) The weaker syllables all have a slight stress, unless they 
have the vowel e. English people should note this, and pro- 
nounce the unaccented vowels clearly, not making them obscure, 
as we are apt to do in English. 

(3) In German, as in English, the accent may be shifted 
when two words are contrasted, as in z&rgehen, nicht vergehen. 

The rules for accenting sentences are the same as in English, 
but these deviations should be noted : — 

(a) A great number of words receive the accent. Compare 
das Bitch, witches er mir gab and the bdoJc which he gave me, 
where the German has three accents and the English only two. 

(b) Verbal forms following the object must not be strongly 
accented in such clauses as the following : einen Brief schrei- 
ben, einen Brief geschrieben haben, wenn ich einen Brief schreibe. 

As in English, the accent may be shifted so as to emphasize 
any word in the sentence to which the speaker wishes to draw 
special attention. In gib mir das Buch her, the stress might 
therefore be laid at pleasure (a) upon gib and Buch, which 
would be the regular accentuation, or (b) on das, or (c) on her. 



§§ 268, 269]. Syllable Division. 173 

Some words, when unaccented, have weak forms, but the 
cases are not nearly so numerous as in English. Exx. er, 'e:r, 
'ar, 'er, er; der, de:r, dar, der. And in conversation er is 
sometimes weakened to r (syllabic), and der in like manner to 
dr with syllabic r. 

Intonation. 

§ 268. Little need be said concerning intonation in German, 
for it follows the same laws as in English. The chief point of 
difference seems to be one which is very noticeable in the ex- 
clamation so ! It is amusing to English people to observe the 
variety of feelings which can be expressed in German by this 
one little monosyllable, by varying its intonation, and as it were 
singing a little tune upon it. Prof. Vietor observes that when 
monosyllables such as ja, so, wie, are used to represent a whole 
sentence, all the intonation of that sentence may be given in a 
single syllable. 

Syllable Division. 

§ 269. Germans divide their syllables in the same way as 
the English, as far as speech is concerned, but when a con- 
sonant belongs equally to the syllables before and after, as in 
leidend, and yet an artificial division must be made, they divide 
thus : — lei-dend, whilst in similar cases we divide as follows ; — ■ 
lead-ing. 



XI. 

SYMBOLIZATION OF GEKMAN SOUNDS. 

Symbols used for the Consonants. 

§ 270. The use of some of the consonant symbols has been 
shown already (§ 237), but a few more explanations are 
needed : (1) to account for some variety in the symbols used 
for the same sounds ; (2) to help students to determine what 
sound is expressed by a doubtful symbol; and (3) to guard 
against some common mistakes. 

§ 271. Doubled Letters, and the combinations ck, tz, serve 
to indicate that the preceding vowel is short, as in fett, Lamm, 
Mann, voll, Narr, Schiff, dick, Satz. 

The distinction between the doubled letter ss (ff) and the 
symbol fs (£), which is not reckoned as a double letter, is not 
usually shown when German is printed in Eoman characters, 
ss being used for both. We find long vowels before fs when 
that symbol is retained in the inflected forms of the word, e.g., 
in Fufs, pi. Filfse. But as fs is regularly substituted for ss at 
the end of words, we meet with fs after short vowels also, e.g., 
in Nufs, "a nut". In these cases the infected forms of the 
word are written with ss, thus : — pi. Niisse. 

§ 272. b, d, g, used for Hard Sounds. We have already 
observed that at the end of a word these are used for p, t and 
C or x. 1 Note that g = g 1 after a front vowel or a consonant, 
as in Sieg, Berg, and x l after a back vowel, as in Tag, zog. 

These letters are also reckoned final and pronounced as 

1 Or k (stage pronunciation) instead of q and x« — Ed. 

(174) 



§ 273.] Symbols used for the Consonants. lib 

hard sounds whenever they are not initial, and are followed by 
a liquid not belonging to the stem, or by any other consonant. 

So b is pronounced p in liebt, "loves," iiblich, "customary". 
d stands for t in handlich, "handy," and g for q 1 in regsam, 
" active," and for x 1 in Wagnis, " perilous enterprise ", 

But in ilbler, " worse," as the 1 belongs to the stem, b is not 
pronounced p, but b. 

§ 273. The rest of the doubtful symbols, arranged alpha- 
betically, are : — 

c. 

1. = ts before front vowels, as in Officier. 

2. = k in other cases, as in Cognac. 

cc. 

1. = kts before front vowels, as in Accent ('aktsent), 
"accent ". 

2. = k before back vowels, as in Accord ('akort), " accord ". 

ch. 

1. = Q after front vowels and consonants, as in ich, "I," 
solch, " such," and always in the ending chen, as in Mamachen, 
" dear mamma ". 

Also initial in Chemie, "chemistry," China, "China," and 
some other foreign words. 

2. = ch after back vowels, as in ach. 

3. = k when followed by radical S, as in Fuchs, " fox," 
sechs, " six," etc. 

Also in Chor, "choir," Chronik, "chronicle," and a few other 
foreign words. 

4. = sh in Chance, "chance," Chef, "principal," and some 
other words borrowed from French. 

9- 
1. = g, initial, and when beginning the primarily accented 
syllable in foreign words, as in gut, " good," regieren, " reign ". 

1 Or k (stage pronunciation) instead of g and x. — Ed. 



176 Symbolization of German Sounds. [§ 273. 

2. = j, 1 medial after front vowels and consonants, as in 
Siege, "victories," Berge, " mountains," regnen, "rain". 

3. = g, 1 medial, after back vowels, as in Tage, "days," 
zogen, "drew". 

4. = zh, initial, and medial in some loan words, as in arran- 
gieren, "arrange," Genie, "genius," "ingenuity". 

5. = §, 2 final, after front vowels and consonants, as in Sieg, 
Berg, regsam. 

6 = x, 2 final, after back vowels, as in Tag, zog, Wagnis. 

h. 
Pronounced h, or used as part of a digraph, such as ah, e\ 
ch, th, or of the trigraph sch. 

i. 
Often pronounced j, instead of i, in unaccented syllables in 
such words as Familie (famr.lje), Spanien (shpa:njen). 

1. = j, as in/a. 

2. = zh in some loan words, e.g., Jalousie, Journal (zhurna:l). 

n. 

1. = n, as in nie, an. 

2. = ng before k, as in sinken, Dank. 

3. In French loan words in &n, on, etc., to show that the 
preceding vowel is nasal. 

See also under ng. 

ng. 
Pronounced as a single sound, ng, as in singen, lang. Barely 
ngg in foreign words, e.g., Kongo, " Congo ". 

s. 
1. = z, initial before vowels, and medial, as in so, Bose, 
winsle. 

1 Or g (stage pronunciation). — Ed. 

2 Or k (stage pronunciation). — Ed. 



§ 274.] Symbols used for the Consonants. Ill 

2. = s, initial before consonants, and final, as in Skizze, 
Hals, ist. 

3. = sh, initial in the combinations sp and st, and so also 
when preceded by German prefixes, as in sprechen, stehen, 
besprechen, verstehen. 

t. 

1. = t, as in Tau, warten, mit. 

2. = ts in words originally Latin, before unaccented i fol- 
lowed by an accented vowel, as in Nation, Patient. 

th. 
Always pronounced t. In German words it occurs by trans- 
position to show that the vowel next to it is long, as in Thai 
for "Tahl," cp. Zahl. 

v. 
After q pronounced y, or by many persons as a simple lip 
continuant. 

Symbols used for the Vowels. 

§ 274. The symbols commonly used to represent the German 
vowels are shown in § 248. It will be seen there that the 
symbols a, a, e, i, o, u, 6,u, ie, may be used to represent long 
or short vowels, and that e has three values, namely long e: in 
schwer, short a infest, and unaccented e in Gebote. 

I propose to give here only the general rules for determin- 
ing the value of these symbols. A full statement of the rules 
and exceptions will be found in Vietor's German Pronunciation. 

The symbols a, a, e, i, o, u, o, u, are used to represent long 
vowels when they occur (1) in open syllables, that is, when they 
are not followed by a consonant in the same syllable, and (2) 
when, in a final syllable, they are followed by one consonant 
only. In other cases they are short. Exx. : — 

a laden (a:) war (a:) warten (a) 

a saen (a:) Bar (a:) Hande (a) 

12 



178 Symbolization of German Sounds. [§ 274. 



e 


BBde (e:) 


schwer (e:) 


/es£ (a) 


i 


Igel (i:) 


mir (i:) 


j^is^e (i) 





Bose (o:) 


Ge6o£ (o:) 


homm (o) 


u 


rufen (u:) 


gut (u:) 


Mutter (u) 





ode (o:) 


sc/ww (6:) 


Morder (6) 


u 


milde (ti:) 


fur (u:) 


Hutte (ii) 



e stands for unaccented e in the unaccented prefixes fre and 
ge, and in the unaccented derivative or inflectional suffixes e, 
el, em, en, end, er, em, es, est, et, as in habe, "have," Vogel, 
"bird," Atem, "breath," lieben, "love," rasend, "furious," Vater, 
"father," eisern, "iron," alles, "all," leidet, "suffers". 

e has the same sound in der, dem, den, des, es, when they 
are unaccented. 

ie stands for short i in Viertel, vierzehn, vierzig. In other 
cases it represents long i:, as in sie, Liebe. 



PAET II 
BEADING LESSONS 

AND 

EXEECISES 



PHONETIC READING BOOK 

(ENGLISH, FBENCH AND GERMAN) 



WITH 



Exercises 



BY 



LAUEA SOAMES 




XonDon 
SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO., Lim. 

NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 
1899 



SPELING LESN'Z. 1 

I. 

Nine Consonants with e, i, o, u. 



et 


it on 


pot 


kid 


gud 


big 


men 


eb 


in pet 


put 


kod 


nuk 


bog 


king 


e g 


od pit 


bed 


kud 
II. 


kuk 


Tom 


gong 






Consonants to dh. 






il 


rok 


wet 




fil 


pith 


thik 


if 


ruk 


thin 




ful 


widh 


lok 


ov 


when 


dhen 




bul 


fit 


luk 


rek 


wen 


dhem 


def 


fut 


pul 


rik 


whet 


fel 


III. 


giv 


wud 


wul 






Bemaining Consonants. 






iz 


woz 


shud 


yel 


chik 


ech 


rich 


dhis 


wosh 


shuk 


hiz 


huk 


ej 


hej 


pus 


dish 


yes 


his 


Jon 


which 


loj 


sez 


push 


yet 


chin 


Jim 


wich 


push 



IV. 

Bemaining Short Accented Vowels — ce, se. 
Script Forms (%} % 



cep 


83Z 


keep 


raeg 


dcev 


raesh 


Maej 


03S 


aesh 


keep 


thoem 


haev 


push 


goesh 


set 


bcek 


bced 


dhaen 


dhoes 


moech 


bush 


sed 


baek 


baed 


soeng 


pus 


maech 


doel 


gem 


buk 


roeg 


saeng 


roesh 


joej 


pul 



See Introduction to Phonetics, § 180. 

(5) 



Speling Lesn'z. 

V. 

Unaccented Vowels — a, and ending ar. 



amid 


abaesh 


vila 




dolar 


kcelar 


abaek 


ataech 


Bela 




milar 


maenar 


ataek 


amaes 


iEna 




roedar 


maetar 


amceng 


amis 


Hasna 




goenar 


moedhar 


abcev 


ahed 


kolar 
VI. 




fular 


soemar 




Weak Words. 


Unaccented 


i and o\ 




a 


dhaet 




dhi 


orinj 


pri-tend 


an 


tu (to) 




dha ncets 


si-lekt 


and 


tuw (two, too) 




poet: 


L 


pro'tekt 


dhi 


a maen 




foli 




windo' 


dha 


an oks 




full 




folo' 


dhat 


pen and ingk 




ri-zist 


folo'ing 



VII. 

Long Vowels — a, ey, i, 6, ow, u. 



pam 


_dhey 


hi 




poz 


now 


hu 


kam 


o'bey 


mt 




pot 


gow 


du 


ban 


peyl 


si 




16 


sow 


shti 


kat 


peys 


fil 




dro 


bowl 


riid 


A 

ar 


eyt 


pis 




for 


bowt 


rul 


far 


geyt 


mashin 


nor 


kowt 


but 








VIII. 












Long Vowels- 


-oe, e. 






boen 


feri 




fadhar 


ripe'ring 




riko's 


toen 


heri 




matar 


dispe'rin 


g 


poshan 


doet 


Meri 




riga'd 


deyzi 




mowing 


hoet 


dering 




bazar 


steyshan 


L 


mowshan 


woed 


wering 




ritoen 


pisful 




rular 


Poeshan 


tering 




dizoev 


disi'v 




truthful 



Speling Lesn'z. 

IX. 

Diphthongs — ai, au, oi, yu. 



baid 


praiing 


hau 


join 


joiing 


nyu 


bait 


flaiing 


nau 


chois 


cloiing 


fyu 


krai 


haus 


bauing 


boi 


dytik 


yAni'k 


flai 


maus 


alauing 


joi 


dyuti 


yunait 



X. 

Diphthongs — ea, ia, 6a, ua. 



wear 


dhear 


riar 


doar 




hoar 


pear 


hear 


fiaz 


moar 




pilar 


whear 


iar 


siar 


roaz 




tuaz 


ear 


piar 


hiar 


soaz 




dtiar 


teaz 


tiaz 


oar (oar, ore) 


woar 




milar 


deaz 


diar 


or (or) 


foar (four, 


fore) 


wtiar 


keaz 


miar 


poar 


for (for) 




shuar 


rear 


niar 


toar 


nor (nor) 




bruar 



BIDING LESN'Z— PKOWZ. 

I. 

Dha Foks and dha Gowt. 
A Foks hsed folan J intu a wel, and heed bin kasting abaut 
for a long taim hau hi shud get aut agen • 2 when set length a 
Gowt keym tu dha pleys, and wonting tu dringk, ast Eenad 
whedhar dha wotar woz gud, and if dhear woz plenti ov it. 
Dha Foks, disenabling dha rial deynjar ov hiz keys, riplaid, 
" Koem daun, mai frend; dha wotar iz sow gud dhat ai kaenot 
dringk ancef 3 ov it, and sow aboendant dhat it kaenot bi igzo'- 
stid." Apon dhis dha Gowt, widhaut eni moar adu, lept in; 
when dha Foks, teyking advantij ov hiz frendz honz, aez 
nimbli lept aut ; and kulli rima'kt tu dha puar dilyu'did Gowt, 
"If yu hsed haf sez moach breynz sez yti hsev biad, yu wud 
haev lukt bifo'ar yu lept." 

II. 

Dha Maizar. 

A Maizar, tu meyk shuar ov his propati, sowld 61 dhat hi 
haed and kanvoetid it intu a greyt losmp ov gowld, which hi 
hid in a howl in dha graund, and went kantinyuali to vizit and 
inspekt it. Dhis rauzd dha kyuariositi ov ween ov hiz woek- 
man, hu, saspekting dhat dhear woz a trezhar, when hiz 
mastaz baek woz toend, went tu dha spot, and stowl it awey. 
When dha Maizar ritoend, and faund dha pleys emti, hi wept, 
and toar hiz hear. Beet a neybar hu so him in dhis ikstrae'va- 
gant grif, and loent dha koz ov it, sed, "Fret yoself 4 now 
longgar, boat teyk a stown and put it in dha seym pleys, and 
thingk dhat it iz yor lcemp ov gowld ; for sez yu nevar ment tu 
ytiz it, dha ween wil du yu aaz mcech gud aaz dhi oedhar." 

Dha woeth ov mceni iz not in its po'zeshan, 5 beet in its yus. 

Alternative forms : — 1 foln / . 2 ageyn. 3 inoe'f. 4 yaself. 

5 pazeshan. 

(8) 



Dha Hilar, hiz Seen, and dhear As. 9 

III. 

Dha Kok and dha Juil. 

Mz a Kok woz skraeching oap dha stro in a fam-yad, in soech 
oy ftid for dha henz, hi hit apon a Ju.il dhat bai seem chans haed 
faund its'wey dhear. "How!" sed hi, " yu. ar a veri fain 
thing, now daut, tu dhowz hu praiz yu ; boat giv mi a bali-kon 
bifo'ar 61 dha poelz in dha woeld." 

Dha Kok woz a sensibl' Kok : boat dhear ar meni sili pipl' 
hu dispaiz whot iz preshas ownli bikoz 1 dhey kaenot cenda- 
stse'nd it. 

IV. 

Dha Kr^eb and hoer Moedhar. 

Sed an owld Krseb tu a yoeng woan, " Whai du yu wok sow 
krukid, chaild? wok streyt ! " 

" Moadhar," sed dha yoeng krseb, "show mi dha wey, wil 
yu? and when ai si yu teyking a streyt kos, ai wil trai and 
foloV 

Igza'mpl' 2 iz betar dhsen prisept. 

V. 

Dha Milar, hiz Scen, and dhear As. 
A Milar and hiz Seen woer draiving dhear As tu a ney- 
baring fear tu sel him. Dhey hsed not gon 3 far when dhey 
met widh a trup of goelz ritoening from dha taun, toking and 
lafing. " Luk dhear!" kraid woen ov dhem ; "did yu evar 
si soech fulz, tu bi trcejing along dha rowd on fut, when dhey 
mait bi raiding! " Dhi owld msen, hiaring dhis, kwaiatli baed 
hiz Seen get on dhi As, and wokt along merili bai dha said ov 
him. Prezantli dhey keym osp tu a grtip ov owld men in oenist 
dibeyt. " Dhear ! " sed woen ov dhem, " it prtivz whot ai woz 
a-seying. Whot rispekt iz shown tu owld eyj in dhiz deyz ? 
Du yu si dhaet aidl' yoeng rowg raiding, whail hiz owld fadhar 

Alternative forms : — 1 biko'z. 2 egza'mpl' 3 gon. 



10 Biding Lesriz — Prowz. 

haez tu wok? — Get daun, yu skeypgreys ! and let dhi owld 
maen rest hiz wiari limz." Apon dhis dha Fadhar meyd hiz So3n 
dismaunt, and got oep himself. In dhis maenar dhey haed not 
pro'sidid far when dhey met a koempani ov wimin and childran. 
" Whai, ju. leyzi owld felo' ! " kraid sevral tosngz set woens, 
" hau kaen yu raid apon dha bist, whail dhaet piiar litl' laed 
dhear kaen hadli kip peys bai dha said ov yu." Dha gud- 
neychad Milar stud karektid, and imi'jitli tuk 03p hiz Soen 
bihaind him. 

Dhey haed nau olmowst richt dha taun. " Prey, onist 
frend," sed a taunzman, " is dhaet As yor own? " " Yes," sez 
dhi owld maen. " Ow ! Woen wud not haev thot sow," sed dhi 
cedhar, " bai dha wey yu lowd him. Whai, yu tu felo'z ar 
betar eybl' tu kaeri dha puar bist dhaen hi yu ! " " Enithing tu 
pliz yu," sed dhi owld maen; " wi kaen beet trai." Sow, 
alaiting widh hiz Soen, dhey taid dhi Asiz legz tagedhar, and 
bai dha help ov a powl indevad tu kaeri him on dhear showldaz 
owvar a brij dhat led tu dha taun. Dhis woz sow entateyning 
a sait dhat dha pipl' raen aut in kraudz tu laf aet it ; til dhi As, 
not laiking dha noiz nor hiz sityueyshan, kikt asoendar dha 
kodz dhat baund him, and, toembling of dha powl, fel intu dha 
rivar. Apon dhis thi owld maen, vekst and asheymd, meyd 
dha best ov hiz wey howm ageyn 1 — kanvinst dhat bai in- 
devring 2 tu pliz evribodi hi haed plizd nowbadi, and lost hiz As 
intu dha bagin. 

VI. 

Dha Kcentri Meyd and hoer Milk-K^n. 

A Koentri Meyd woz woking along widh a kaen ov milk apou 
hoer hed, when shi fel intu dha folo'ing streyn ov riflekshanz : 
" Dha mceni for which ai shael sel dhis milk wil ineybl' mi tu 
inkrl's mai stok ov egz tu thri hoendrad. Dhiz egz, alauing 
for whot mey pruv aedl', and whot mey bi distroid bai voemin, 

Alternative forms : — 1 agen. 2 indevaring. 



Dha Frogz Asking for a King. 11 

wil pro'dyus set list tu hoendrad and fifti chikinz. Dha 
chikinz wil bi fit tu kaeri tu makit joest aet dha taim when 
powltri iz olwiz 1 diar ; sow dhat bai dha nyti-yoer 2 ai kaenot 
feyl ov haeving moeni anoef 3 tu poechis a nyu gaun. Grin — let 
mi kansidar — yes, grin bikoe'mz mai kamplekshan best, and 
grin it shael bi. In dhis dres ai wil gow tu dha fear, whear 61 
dha yoeng felo'z wil straiv tu haev mi for a patnar ; bost now — 
ai shael rifyu'z evri woen ov dhem, and widh a disdeynful tos 4 
toen from dhem." Transpo'tid widh dhis aidi'a, shi kud not 
fobe'ar 5 aekting widh hoer hed dha thot dhat dhces past in hoer 
maind ; when daun keym dha kaen ov milk ! and 61 hoer imae'- 
jinari haepinis vasnisht in a mowmant. 

VII. 

Dha Frogz Asking fSb a King. 

In dha deyz ov owld, when dha Frogz woer 61 aet libati in 
dha leyks, and haed grown kwait wiari ov folo'ing evri woen hiz 
own divaisiz, dhey asembl'd woen dey tagedhar, and widh now 
litl' klaemar pitishand Jupitar tu let dhem haev a King tu kip 
dhem in betar odar, and meyk dhem lid honistar laivz. Jupitar 
nowing dha vaeniti od hevar hats, smaild aet dhear rikwest, and 
thru daun a log intu dha leyk, which bai dha splaesh and 
kamowshan it meyd, sent dha howl komanwelth intu dha 
greytist terar and ameyzmant. Dhey roesht cender dha wotar 
and intu dha meed, and dead not koem widhin ten lips length 
ov dha spot where it ley. Mt length woen Frog, bowldar dhaen 
dha rest, venchad tu pop hiz hed aboev dha wotar, and teyk a 
soervey ov dhear nyu King aet a rispektful distans. Prezantli, 
when dhey poesi'vd 6 dha log lai stok-stil, cedhaz bigae'n tu 
swim up to it and araund it, til bai digri'z, growing bowldar and 
bowldar, dhey aet last lept apon it, and tritid it widh dha 
greytist kantempt. 

Disae'tisfaid widh sow teym a rular, dhey fothwith pitishand 

Alternative forms : — 1 olweyz. 2 yiar. 3 ince'f . 4 tos. 

5 f abear. 6 pastvd. 



12 Biding Lesn'z — Prowz. 

Jupitar a sekand taim for anoedhar and moar aektiv King. 
Apon which hi sent dhem a stok, hu now stinar araivd amoeng 
dhem dhaen hi bigae'n leying howld ov dhem and divauaring 
dhem woen bai ween aez fast; aez hi kud, and it woz in veyn dhat 
dhey indevad tu iskeyp him. Dhen dhey sent Moekyuri widh 
a praivit mesij tu Jupitar, bisi'ching him dhat hi wud teyk piti 
on dhem woens moar ; boat Jupitar riplaid dhat dhey woer 
ownli scefaring dha poenishmant dyu tu dhear foli, and dhat 
anoedhar taim dhey wud loen tu let wel alown, and not bi 
disae'tisfaid widh dhear naecharal kandishan. 

VIII. 

Dha Kcentei Maus and dha Taun Maus. 

Woens apon a taim a Koentri Maus hu haed a frend in taun 
invaitid him, for owld akweyntans seyk, to pey him a vizit in 
dha koentri. Dhi inviteyshan biing aekseptid in dyu fom, dha 
Koentri Maus, dhow pleyn and roef and soemwhat frugal in hiz 
neychar, owpn'd hiz hat and stoar in onar ov hospitaeliti and 
an owld frend. Dhear woz not a keafuli stod oep mosl' dhat hi 
did not bring foth aut ov hiz ladar, piz and bali, chizperingz 
and noets, howping bai kwontiti tu meyk oep whot hi fiad woz 
wonting in kwoliti, tu syut dha paelat ov hiz deynti gest. 

Dha Taun Maus, kondisending tu pik a bit hiar and a bit 
dhear, whail dha howst saet nibling a bleyd ov bali-stro, set 
length ikskleymd : " Hau iz it, mai gud frend, dhat yu kaen 
indyu'ar dha doelnis ov dhis oenpolisht laif ? Yti ar living laik 
a towd in a howl. Yu kant riali prifoer dhiz solitari roks and 
wudz tu strits timing widh kaerijiz and men. On mai onar, 
yti ar weysting yor taim mizarabli hiar. Wi moest meyk dha 
mowst ov laif whail it lasts. A Maus, yu now, doez not liv for 
evar. Sow koem widh mi, and ai l 1 show yu laif and dha 
taun." 

Owvapauad widh soech fain woedz and sow polisht a maenar, 
dha Koentri Maus aesentid ; 2 and dhey set aut tagedhar on 

Alternative forms : — 1 wil. 2 asentid. 



Dhi Asiz Shcedo'. 13 

dhear joeni tu taun. It woz leyt in dhi ivning when dhey 
krept stelthili intu dha siti, and midnait ear dhey richt dha 
greyt haus, whear dha Taun Maus tuk oep hiz kwotaz. Hiar 
woer kauchiz ov krimzan velvit, kavingz in aivari ; evrithing 
in shot dinowtid welth and loekshari. On dha teybl' woer dha 
rimeynz ov a splendid baengkwit, tu pro'kyuar which 61 dha 
choisist shops in dha taun haed bin raensaekt dha dey bifo'ar. 

It woz nau dha toen ov dha kotyar tu pley dha howst ; hi 
pleysiz hiz koentri frend on poepl', rcenz tti and frow tu saplai 
61 hiz wonts, presiz dish apon dish and deynti apon deynti, and, 
sez dhow hi woer weyting apon a king, teysts evri kos ear hi 
venchaz tu pleys it bifo'ar hiz rcestik kcezn'. Dha Koentri Maus, 
for hiz pat, afekts tu meyk himself kwait set howm, and blesiz 
dha gud fochan dhat hsez rot soech a cheynj in hiz wey ov laif ; 
when, in dha midst ov hiz injoimant, sez hi iz thingking widh 
kantempt ov dha puar fear hi haez foseykn', l on a scedn' dha 
doar flaiz owpn', and a pati ov revl'az ritoening from a leyt 
entateynmant boests intu dha rum. 

Dhi afraitid frendz joemp from dha teybl' in dha greytist 
konstaneyshan and haid dhemselvz 2 in dha foest konar dhey 
kaen rich. Now sunar du dhey venchar tu krip aut ageyn 3 
dhaen dha baking ov dogz draivz dhem baek in stil greytar 
terar dhaen bifo'ar. 2Et length, when thingz simd kwaiat, dha 
Koentri Mous stowl aut from hiz haiding-pleys, and biding hiz 
frend gud-bai, whispad in hiz iar, 4 " Ow, mai gud soer, dhis fain 
mowd ov living mey du for dhowz hii laik it ; beet giv mi mai 
bali-bred in pis and sikytiariti bifo'ar dha deyntiist fist whear 
Fiar and Kear ar in weyting." 

IX. 

Dm Asiz Shcedo'. 
A yuth, woen hot soemaz dey, haiad an As tu kaeri him from 
^thinz tu Megara. Mt middey dha hit ov dha soen woz sow 
skoching, dhat hi dismauntid, and wud haev saet daun tu 

Alternative forms : — 1 faseykn'. 2 dhamselvz. 3 agen. 4 yoer. 



14 Riding Lesn'z — Prowz. 

A 

ripowz cendar dha shaedo' ov dhi As. Boet dha draivar ov dhi 
As dispyii'tid dha pleys widh him, dikle'ring dhat hi haed an 
ikwal rait tu it widh dhi oedhar. " Whot ! " sed dha yuth, 
" did ai not haiar dhi As for dha howl joeni ? " " Yes," sed dhi 

A A. 

oedhar, "yu haiad dhi As, boet not dhi Asiz shaedo'." Whail 
dhey woer dhoes raenggling and faiting for dha pleys, dhi As 
tuk tu hiz hilz and raen awey. 

X. 

Dha Mc3Ngki and dha Dolfin. 

It woz an owld koestam amoeng seylaz tu kaeri abaut widh 
dhem litl' Moltiz laep-dogz, or moengkiz, tu amytiz dhem on 
dha voiij ; sow it haepn'd woens apon a taim dhat a maen tuk 
widh him a Moengki aez a kampaenyan on bod ship. Whail 
dhey woer of Sunyam, dha feymas promantari ov iEtika, dha 
ship woz kot in a vaialant stom, and biing kaepsaizd, 61 on bod 
woer thrown intu dha wotar, and haed tu swim for laend aez 
best dhey kud. And amoeng dhem woz dha Moengki. A 
Dolfin so him strcegling, and teyking him for a maen, went tu 
hiz asistans and boar him on hiz baek streyt for shoar. When 
dhey haed joest got opazit Pairi'as, dha habar ov iEthinz, dha 
Dolfin ast dha Moengki if hi woer an Athinyan ? " Yes," ansad 
dha Moengki, " ashuaridli, and ov ween ov dha foest faemiliz 
in dha pleys." " Dhen ov kos yu now Pairi'as," sed dha 
Dolfin. " Ow, yes," sed dha Moengki, hu thot it woz dha neym 
ov seem distinggwisht sitizn' ; " hi iz ween ov mai mowst inti- 
mit frendz." Indignant aet sow grows a disi't and folsud, dha 
Dolfin daivd tu dha botam, and left dha laiing Moengki tu hiz 
feyt. 

XI. 

Dha Wind and dha Scen. 
A dispyti't woens arowz bitwi'n dha Wind and dha Seen, 
which woz dha stronggar ov dha tu, and dhey agrid tu put dha 
point apon dhis isyti, dhat whichevar sunist meyd a traevl'ar 



Dha Foks widhdut a Teyl. 15 

teyk of hiz klowk, shud bi akauntid dha moar pauaful. Dha 
Wind bigae'n, and blu widh 61 hiz mait and meyn a blast, kowld 
and fias sez a Threyshan stom ; beet dha stronggar hi blu dha 
klowsar dha traevl'ar raept hiz klowk arannd him, and dha 
taitar hi graspt it widh hiz haendz. Dhen browk aut dha 
Seen ; widh hiz welkam bimz hi dispoest dha veypar and dha 
kowld ; dha trsevl'ar felt dha jinyal womth, and sez dha Seen 
shon braitar and braitar, hi saet daun, owvakce'm widh dha hit, 
and kast hiz klowk on dha graund. 

Dhces dha Seen woz dikle'ad dha kongkarar ; and it haez evar 
bin dimd dhat poesweyzhan J iz betar dhaen fos ; and dhat dha 
scenshain ov a kaind and jentl' maenar wil sunar ley owpn' a 
puar maenz hart dhaen 61 dha thretningz and fos ov blcestaring 2 
othoriti. 

XII. 

Dha Foks widh/ut a Teyl. 
A Foks biing kot in a traep, woz glaed tu kampaund for hiz 
nek bai living hiz teyl bihaind him ; beet apon koeming abrod 
intu dha woeld, hi bigae'n tu bi sow sensibl' ov dha disgreys 
seech a difekt wud bring apon him, dhat hi olmowst wisht hi 
haed daid radhar dhaen koem awey widhaut it. Hau6var, 
rizolving tu meyk dha best ov a baed maetar, hi kold a miting 
ov dha rest ov dha foksiz, and pro'powzd dhat 61 shud folo' hiz 
igza'mpl'. " Yu haev now nowshan," sed hi, " ov dhi iz and 
koemfat widh which ai nau muv abaut ; ai kud nevar haev 
bili'vd it if I haed not traid it maiself ; 3 beet, riali, when ween 
koemz tu rizn' apon it, a teyl iz seech an cegli, inkanvi'nyant, 
cennesisari apendij, dhat dhi ownli wcendar iz dhat, aez foksiz, 
wi kud haev put oep widh it sow long. Ai pro'powz, 4 dhearfor, 
mai woedhi bredhrin, dhat yu 61 profit bai dhi ikspi'rians dhat ai 
aem mowst wiling tu aford yu, and dhat 61 foksiz from dhis dey 
fowad koet of dhear teylz." Apon dhis ween ov dhi owldist 

Alternative forms : — 2 pasweyzhan. 2 bloestring. 

3 miself. 4 prapowz. 



16 Biding Lesn'z — Prowz. 

stept fowad and sed, "Ai radhar thingk, mai frend, dhat yii 
wud not haev advaizd oes tu pat widh auar teylz if dhear woer 
eni chans ov rikoe'varing yor own." 

EIliz tu Plants. 

In dha reyn ov Kwin Ilizabath, tu plants woer brot tu 
Inggland, for dha foest taim, bai Soer Woltar Bali, bowth ov 
which ar nau veri mcech yiizd — dha tabaeko'-plant and dha 
pateyto'. Soer Woltar haed seyld akros dha siz tu Amerika, 
in soech ov nyu laendz, and hi brot baek bowth dhiz plants 
widh him. 

When hi woz in Amerika, hi haed sin dhi Indyanz smowk, 
and bifo'ar long hi akwaiad dha haebit himself. Hi bikeym 
ikstri'mli fond ov smowking, and frikwantli indceljd in dha 
praektis. 

When hi ritoend tu Inggland, hi woz siting bai dha faiar 
woen dey, and bigae'n tu smowk. In dha midl' ov hiz smowking, 
dha doar owpn'd, and in keym hiz maen-soevant. Nau dhis 
maen haed nevar in hiz laif sin eni woen smowk, and did not 
now dhat dhear woz soech a plant aez tabaeko'. Sow when hi 
so dha smowk koeming from hiz mastaz mauth, hi thot dhat 
hi woz on faiar ! Hi kraid aut in alam, raen tu fech a boekit 
ov wotar tu put dha faiar aut : and Soer Woltar woz delyujd 
bifo'ar hi haed taim tu ikspleyn whot hi woz riali diiing. 

Beet veri sun dhi owld soevant got yust tu siing pipl' 
widh smowk koeming aut ov dhear maudhz ; and 61 dha yoeng 
nowbl'z ov dha kot bigae'n tu smowk bikoz Soer Woltar did 
sow. 

iEt foest pipl' did not laik dha pateyto' aet 61; nowbadi 
wud it it. Yet Soer Woltar towld dhem hau yusful it wud bi. 
Dha pateyto', hi sed, kud bi meyd tu grow in Inggland. Hi 
towld dhem dhat, when dha kon-havist feyld — which it 6fn' 
yust tu du — pipl' nid not stav if dhey haed plenti ov pateyto'z. 

Kwin Ilizabath, hu woz a veri klevar wuman, lisn'd tu 
whot Soer Woltar sed, and haed pateyto'z soevd cep aet hoer own 



A Boiz Advenchaz amceng dha Si-Keyvz. 17 

teybl'. Dh6ar dha graend pipF hu daind widh hoer maBJisti 
woer o'blaijd J tu It dhem. Beet dhey spred a ripo't dhat dha 
pateyto' woz poizn'as, bikoz it bilongz tu dha seym odar aez dha 
dedli naitsheyd and meni cedhar poizn'as plants. Sow in spait 
ov 61 dhat dha Kwin kud du, now ween wud It pateyto'z, and 
dhey woer left for dha pigz. 

Dha pipl* did not faind aut dhear misteyk til meni yoez 2 
aftawadz. Dha puar pateyto' woz dispaizd and fdrgotn' 3 til 
dha reyn ov dha French 4 King Luis XVI., when dhear livd 
a Frenchman hu haed meyd a stcedi ov growing plants for 
fud. Hi felt shuar dhat hi kud meyk dha pateyto' a greyt 
blesing tu dha koentri; and hi bigae'n set weens tu trai. 

Aftar a greyt dil ov troebl' hi saksidid. Pipl' laft aet him 
aet foest, and wud not teyk eni nowtis ov whot hi sed. Boat 
hi went on growing dha pateyto' til hi brot it tu poefekshan. 5 
Ivn' dhen now woen wud haev itn' it, if its pat haed not bin 
teykn' bai dha king. Hi haed laj pisiz ov graund plantid widh 
pateyto'z, and went abaut widh dha flauar ov dha pateyto in hiz 
bcetn'-howl. 

Now woen dead tu laf aet dha king, and when hi sed dhat 
pateyto'z woer tu bi itn', pipl' bigae'n tu faind aut hau gud 
and howlsam dhey wcer. Bai digri'z dha pateyto' woz moar 
and moar laikt; and nau dhear iz hadli eni vejitabl' dhat iz 
moar haili isti'md. 

A Boiz Advenchaz amceng dha SI-Keyvz. 
A Teyl of dha Kromati Kowst. 

From Mai SkUlz and ShUlmaastaz, dhi 6to'bai6grafi ov 
Hyu Milar, dha selibreytid jiolajist, hu woz twelv yoez 6 owld 
when hi haed dhis streynj advenchar. 

It woz on a plezant spring moning dhat, widh mai litl' 
kytiarias frend bisaid mi, ai stud on dha bich opazit dhi istan 

Alternative forms : — a ablaijd. 2 yiaz. s fagotn'. * Prensh. 

5 pafekshan. 6 yiaz. 

2 



18 Biding Lesn'z — Prowz. 

promantari, dhat widh its stoen grsenitik wol, baz aekses for ten 
deyz aut ov evri foti'n l tu dha wcendaz ov dha Dukot ; and so 
it streching pro'vowkingli aut intu dha grin w6tar. It woz had 
tu bi disapointid, and dha keyvz sow niar. Dha taid woz a low 
nip, and if wi wontid a psesij drai-shod, it bihu'vd oes tu weyt 
for set list a wik • boat nidhar 2 ov oes oandastud dha filosafi ov 
nip-taidz set dhset piari'ad. Ai woz kwait shuar ai hted got 
raund set low wotar widh mai cengkl'z not a greyt meni deyz 
bifo'ar, and wi bowth infoed dhat if wi boet saksidid in geting 
raund nau, it wud bi kwait a plezhar tu weyt amceng dha 
keyvz insaid, centil 3 soech taim sez dha fol ov dha taid shud 
ley bear a psesij for aur ritoen. 

A nsero' and browkn' shelf rcenz along dha promantari, on 
which, bai dhi assistans ov dha neykid fit, it iz joest posibl' tu 
krip. Wi saksidid in skrsembling oep tu it, and dhen, kroling 
cepwadz on 61 foz — dha presipis, sez wi pro'sidid, bitling moar 
and moar fomidabl' from aboev, and dha wotar bikoe'ming 
grinar and dipar bilow — wi richt dhi autar point ov dha pro- 
mantari ; and dhen, doebling dha keyp on a stil nsero'ing 
majin — dha wotar, bai a rivoes proses, bikce'ming shaelo'ar and 
less grin aez wi advanst inwads — wi faund dha lej toemineyting 
jcest whear, aftar kliaring dha si, it owvahoe'ng dha grsevl'i 
bich set an eliveyshan ov niali ten fit. 

Adaun wi bowth dropt, praud ov aur sakses — cep splaesht 
dha rsetling graevl' sez wi fel, and for set list dha howl koeming 
wik, dhow wi woer oenawe'ar ov dhi ikstent ov auar gud-loek set 
dha taim, dha mavl'z ov dha Dukot Keyv mait bi riga/did sez 
sowlli and iksklu'sivli auar own. For woen shot sevn' deyz, tu 
boro' emfasis from dha freyziolaji ov Kalail, " dhey woer auar 
own and now cedhar msenz." 

Dha foest ten auaz woer auaz ov shiar injoimant. Dha lajar 
keyv prtivd a main of mavl'z \ and wi faund a greyt dil adisha- 
nal tu wcendar set on dha slowps bini'th dha presipisiz, and 

Alternative forms: — 1 fo'tin. 2 naidhar. 3 oe'ntil. 



A Boiz Advenchaz amceng dha Si-Keyvz. 19 

along dha pis ov roki si-bich in frcent. Wi saksidid in dis- 
kce'varing l for auselvz bai kriping, dwof-bushiz dhat towld ov 
dha Waiting infiu'ansiz ov dha si-sprey, dha peyl yelo' hoenisoekr, 
dhat wi haed nevar sin bifoar seyv in gadn'z and shroebariz, and 
on a dipli-sheydid slowp dhat lind agenst 2 woen ov dha stipar 
presipisiz, wi ditektid dha swit-sentid wudroef ov dha flauar- 
plot and pate'ar widh its delikit whait flauaz and priti livz, dhat 
bikoe'm dha moar owdarifaras dha moar dhey ar kroesht. 
Dhear tu, imi'jitli in dhi owpning ov dha dipar keyv, whear a 
smol strim keym paetaring in ditae'cht drops from dhi owvar- 
bitling presipis aboev, laik dha foest drops ov a hevi thcendar- 
shauar, wi faund dha hot, bitar skoevi-gras, which dha greyt 
Kseptin Kuk yuzd in hiz voyijiz ; aboev 61, dhear woer dha 
keyvz, widh dhear pijanz, 3 whait, vearigeytid, and blu, and dhear 
misti'ari'as and gltimi debths, 4 in which plants hadn'd intu 
stown, and wotar bikeym mabl'. 

In a shot taim wi hsed browkn' of widh auar haamaz howl 
pokit fulz ov staelaktaits and petrifaid mos. Dhear wcer litl' 
ptilz aet dha said ov dha keyv, whear wi kud si dha woek ov 
konjileyshan gowing on, sez a3t dha kamensmant ov an Oktowbar 
frost, when dha kowld noth wind beet beali roefl'z dha soefis ov 
seem maun tin lokan or sloegish mualand strim, and showz dha 
nyuli-fomd nidl'z ov ais glisning from dha shoz intu dha wotar. 
Sow raapid woz dha kos ov depazishan, dhat dhear woer keysiz 
in which dha saidz ov dha holo'z simd growing olmowst in 
praposhan sez dha wotar rowz in dhem ; dha springz liping 
owvar, dipozitid dhear mainyu/t kristalz on dhi ejiz, and dha 
rezavwoz dipn'd and bikeym moar kapeyshas aez dhear maundz 
woer bilt cep bai dhis kytiarias meysanri. 

Dha long teliskopic prospikt 5 ov dha spakling si, sez vyud 
from dhi inar ikstremiti ov dha kaevan, whail 61 araund woz 
dak sez midnait — dha scedn' glim ov dha si-gcel, sin for a 
mowmant from dha rises, sez it flitid past in dha soenshain — 

Alternative forms : — 1 diskce'vring. 2 ageynst. 3 pijinz. 

4 depths. 5 prospe kt. 



20 Biding Lesn'z — Prowz. 

dha blaek hiving bcelk ov dha graempas, aez it thru oep its 
slendar jets ov sprey, and dhen, toening daunwadz, displeyd its 
glosi baek and vast aengyular fin ; Ivn' dha pijanz, aez dhey 
shot whizing bai, woen mowmant skeas vizibl' in dha glum, 
dha nekst reydyant in dha lait — 61 akwaiad a nyu intarist from 
dha pikytiliaeriti ov dha seting in which wi so dhem. Dhey 
fomd a siarlz ov scen-gilt vinyets, freymd in jet ; and it woz 
long ear wi taiad ov siing and admaiaring in dhem mcech ov 
dha streynj and dha bytitiful. 

It did sim radhar ominas, hauevar, and pahaeps scemwhot 
syupanae'charal tu but, dhat abaut an auar aftar nun, dha taid, 
whail yet dhear woz a ful f aedham ov wotar bini'th dha brau ov 
dha promantari, sist tu fol, and dhen, aftar a kwotar ov an auaz 
speys, bigae'n aekchwali tu krip cepwadz on dha bich. Boet 
joest howping dhat dhear mait bi seem misteyk in dha maetar, 
which dhi ivning taid wud skeas feyl tu rektifai, wi kantinyud 
tu amyuz auaselvz, and tu howp on. 

Auar aftar auar past, length'ning aez dha shaedo'z lengthand, 
and yet dha taid stil rowz. Dha seen haed scengk bihaind dha 
presipisiz, and 61 woz glum along dhear beysiz, and dcebl' glum 
in dhear keyvz ; boet dhear rcegid brauz stil kot dha red glear 
ov ivning. Dha flcesh rowz haiar and haiar, cheyst bai dha 
shaedo'z : and dhen, aftar linggaring for a mowmant on dhear 
krests ov hceniscekl' and junipar, past awey, and dha howl 
bikeym sombar and grey. Dha si-gcel flaept oepwadz from 
whear hi haed flowtid on dha ripl', and haid him slowli awey tu 
hiz loj in hiz dip-si staek ; dha dceski komarant flitid past, widh 
hevi'ar and moar frikwant strowk, tu hiz whaitn'd shelf on dha 
presipis ; dha pijanz keym whizing daunwadz from dhi ceplandz 
and dhi opazit laend, and disapi'ad amid dha glum ov dhear 
keyvz; evri krichar dhat haed wingz meyd ytis ov dhem in 
spiding howmwadz, beet nidhar 1 mai kampaenyan nor maiself 2 
haed eni, and dhear woz now posibiliti ov geting howm widhaut 
dhem. 

A Iternative forms : — l naidhar. 2 mis^lf . 



A Boiz Advenchaz amceng dha Si-Keyvz. 21 

Wi meyd desparit efats tu skeyl dha presipisiz, and on tu 
sevaral x akeyzhanz saksidid in riching midwey shelvz amoeng 
dha kraegz, whear dha perigrin-folkan and dha reyvn' bild ; beet 
dhow wi haed klaimd wel ancef 2 tu rendar auar ritoen a maetar 
ov bear posibiliti, dhear woz now posibiliti whoteVar ov geting 
fadhar cep — dha klifs haed nevar bin skeyld, and dhey woer not 
destind tu bi skeyld nau. And sow aez dha twailait dipn'd, and 
dha prike'ri'as futing bikeym evri mowmant moar dautful and 
prike'ri'as, wi haed joest tu giv cep in dispe'ar. 

"Wudn't kear for miself," 3 sed dha puar litl' felo', mai 
kampaenyan, boesting intu tiaz, "if it woer not for mai 4 
mcedhar; beet whot wil mai 4 moedhar sey?" "Wudn't kear 
nidhar," sed ai, widh a hevi hat; "beet it s jcest baekwotar, 
and wi l 5 get aut aet twelv." Wi ritri'tid tagedhar intu ween 
ov dha shaelo'ar and draiar keyvz, and kliaring a litl* spot ov 
its reef stownz, and dhen growping along dha roks for dha drai 
gras, dhat in dha spring sizan haengz from dhem in widhad 
tcefts, wi fomd for auaselvz a mowst cenkce'mfatabr bed, and 
ley daun in ween ancedhaz amz. 

For dha last fyu auaz mauntinas pailz ov klaudz haed bin 
raizing, dak and stomi in dha si-mauth, and dhey haed flead 
pot^ntasli in dha seting seen, and haed won, widh dha diklain 
ov ivning, olmowst evri mitiorik tint ov aenggar, from faiari 
red tu a sombar thcendaras braun, and from sombar braun tu 
dowlful blaek, and wi kud nau, aet list, hiar whot dhey p6- 
t6ndid, dhow wi kud now longgar si. Dha raizing wind 
bigae'n tu haul monfuli amid dha klifs, and dha si, hidhatu sow 
sailant, tu bit hevili agenst 6 dha shoar, and tu bum, laik 
distr^s gcenz, from dha risesiz ov dha tu dip-si keyvz. Wi 
kud hiar, tu, dha biting reyn, nau hevi'ar, nau laitar, aez dha 
gcests sweld or saengk; and dhi intamitant paetar ov dha 
strimlit owvar dha dipar keyv, nau draiving agenst 6 dha pre- 
sipisiz, nau disending hevili on dha stownz. 

Alternative forms : — 1 sevral. Mnce'f. 8 mais£lf. *mi. 
5 wil. 6 ageynst. 



22 Biding Lesn'z — Prowz. 

Tuwo'dz 1 midnait dha skai kliad, and dha wind fel, and dha 
mun in hoer last kwotar rowz red aez a mas ov hitid aian aut 
ov dha si. Wi krept daun in ahi oensoetin lait, owvar dha roef 
slipari kraegz, tu aesateyn whedhar dha taid haed not foln' 
safishantli far tu yild oes a paesij, boat wi faund dha weyvz 
cheyflng amoeng dha roks, joest whear dha taid-lain haed restid 
twelv auaz bifo'ar, and a ful faedham ov si inkla'sping dha beys 
ov dha promantari. 

A glimaring aidi'a ov dha rial neychar ov auar sityueyshan 
aet length krost mai maind. It woz not imprizamant for a taid 
tu which wi haed kansaind auaselvz ; it woz imprizanmant for 
a wik. Dhear woz litl' kcernfat in dha thot, araizing, aez it 
did, amid dha chilz and teraz ov a driari midnait, and ai lukt 
wistfuli on dha si aez auar ownli path ov iskeyp. Dhear woz a 
vesl' krosing dha weyk ov dha mun aet dha taim, skeas haf a 
mail from dha shoar, and asistid bai mai kampaenyan, ai bigae'n 
tu shaut aet dha top ov mai lcengz, in dha howp ov biing hoed 
bai dha seylaz. Wi so hoer dim boelk foling slowli athwot 
dha red glitaring belt ov lait dhat haed rendad hoer vizibl', and 
dhen disapi'aring in dha moeki blaeknis ; and joest aez wi lost 
sait ov hoer for evar, wi kud hiar an indistingkt saund mingling 
widh dha daesh ov dha weyvz — dha shaut in riplai ov dha 
statl'd helmzman. 

Dha vesl', aez wi aaftawadz loent, woz a laj stown-laitar, 
dipli leydn', and oanfoenisht widh a bowt ; nor woer hoer krti 
aet 61 shuar dhat it wud haev bin seyf tu atend tu dha midnait 
vois from amid dha roks, ivn' haed dhey dha minz ov kamyuni- 
keyshan widh dha shoar. Wi weytid on and on, hauevar, nau 
shauting bai toenz, and nau shauting tagedhar, boat dhear woz 
now sekand riplai ; and aet length luzing howp, w r i growpt auar 
wey baek tu auar koemfatlis bed, joest aez dha taid haed agen 2 
toend on dha bich, and dha weyvz bigae'n tu rowl oepwadz, 
haiar and haiar aet evri daesh. 

Mz dha mun rowz and braitn'd, ai haed saksidid in droping 

Alternative forms : — a todz. 2 ageyn. 



Dha Diskantentid Pendyulam. 23 

aez saundli aslip aez mai kampaenyan, when wi woer bowth 
arauzd bai a laud shaut. Wi statid cep, and agen krept daun- 
wadz amoeng dha kraegz tu dha shoar, and asz wi richt dha si, 
dha shaut woz ripi'tid. It woz thaet ov a3t list a doezn hash 
voisiz yunaitid. Dhear woz a brif poz, folo'd bai ancedhar 
shaut, and dhen tu bowts, strongli maend, shot raund dha 
westan promantari, and shautid yet ageyn. 

Dha howl taun haed bin alamd bai dhi intelijans dhat tu. 
litl' boiz haed straegl'd awey in dha moning tu dha roks ov dha 
soedhan Syutor, and haed not faund dhear wey bask. Dha 
presipisiz haed bin a sin ov fraitful aeksidants from taim 
imimo'ri'al, and it wcez aet woens infoed dhat woen oedhar saed 
aeksidant haed bin aedid tu dha noembar. Tru, dhear woer 
keysiz rimembad ov pipl' haeving bin taid-baund in dha Dtikot 
keyvz, and not mcech woes in konsikwans, boet aez dha keyvz 
woer inaeksesibl' ivn' dyuaring nips, wi kud not, it woz sed, 
posibli bi in dhem ; aend dha sowl rimeyning graund ov howp 
woz, dhat aez haed haepn'd woens bifo'r, ownli woen ov da tu 
haed bin kild, and that dhi soevaivar woz linggaring amoeng dha 
roks, afreyd tu koem howm. And in dhis bili'f, when dha mun 
rowz, and dha soef fel, dha tu bowts haed bin fitid aut. 

It woz leyt in dha moning ear wi richt Kromati, beet a 
kraud on dha bich aweytid auar araivl' ; and dhear woer 
angshas-luking laits glansing in dha windo'z, thik and maeni- 
fowld ; ney, soech woz dhi intarist ilisitid, dhat soem ino'masli 
baed voes, in which dha raitar diskraibd dhi insidant a fyu. 
deyz aftar, bikeym popyular anoef x tu bi haendid abaut in 
maenyuskript, and red aet ti-patiz bai dhi eyli't ov dha tun. 

Dha Diskantentid Pendyulam. 

An owld klok dhat haed stud for fifti yoez 2 in a famaz kichin, 

widhaut giving its ownar eni koz ov kampleynt, oeli ween soemaz 

moning, bifo'ar dha faemili woz stoering, soedn'li stopt. Apon 

dhis dha daial-pleyt (if wi mey kredit dha feybl') cheynjd 

Alternative forms: — x inoe'f. 2 yiaz. 



24 Biding Lesn'z — Prowz. 

kauntinans widh alam, dha haendz meyd an inifektywal l efat 
tu kantinyu dhear kos, dha whilz rimeynd mowshanlis widh 
sapraiz, dha weyts hoeng splchlis, ich membar felt dispowzd tu 
ley dha bleym on dhi oedhaz. 

Mt length dha daial instityutid a fomal inkwaiari intu dha 
koz ov dha stop, when haendz, whilz, weyts, widh ween vois, 
pro'testid dhear ino'sans ; 2 beet nau a feynt tik woz hoed bilow 
from dha pendyulam, hu dhoss spowk: " Ai kanfes maiself 3 tu 
bl dha sowl koz ov dha prezant stopij, and ai aem wiling, for 
dha jenaral saetisfaekshan, tu asain mai rizn'z. Dha truth iz, 
dhat ai aem taiad ov tiking." 

Apon hiaring dhis, dhi owld klok bikeym sow inreyjd, dhat 
it woz on dha veri point ov straiking. " Leyzi waiar ! " iks- 
kleymd dha daial-pleyt. " Mz tu dhaet," riplaid dha pendyu- 
lam, " it iz vastli izi for yu, Mistris Daial, hu haev olwiz, aez 
evribodi nowz, set y6self cep aboev mi — it iz vastli izi for yu, ai 
sey, tu akyuz cedhar pipl' ov leyzinis — yu, hu haev haed noething 
tu du 61 dha deyz ov yor laif boat tu stear pipl' in dha feys, and 
tu amyuz yoself widh woching 61 dhat gowz on in dha kichin ! 
Thingk, ai bisi'ch yu, hau yu wud laik tu bi shoet cep for laif in 
dhis dak klozit, and waeg baekwadz and fowadz, yoer 4 aftar 
yoer, 4 aez ai du." 

M Whai," sed dha daial, "iz dhear not a windo' in yor haus 
on poepas for yu tu luk thru? " " For 61 dhaet," rizyu'md dha 
pendyulam, "oldhow dhear iz a windo', ai dear not stop, ivn' 
for an instant, tu luk aut. Bisaidz, ai aem riali taiad ov mai wey 
ov laif ; and, if yu pliz, ai 1 5 tel yu hau ai tuk dhis disgee'st aet 
mai imploimant. Dhis moning, ai haepn'd tu bi kaelkyuleyting 
hau meni taimz ai shud haev tu tik in dha k6s ownli ov dha 
nekst foar-and-twenti auaz — pahaeps seem ov yu aboev dhear 
kaen giv mi dhi igzae'kt seem." Dha minit haend, biing kwik 
aet figaz, instantli riplaid, " Eyti-siks thauzand foar hcendrad 
taimz." 

A Iternative forms : — x inif ekchwal. 2 inasn's. 3 mis^lf . 

( 4 yiar. — Ed.) 5 wil. 



Dha Diskantentid Pendyulam. 25 

" Igzae'kli sow," riplaid dha pendyulam ; " wel, ai apil tu yu 
61, if dha veri thot ov dhis woz not anoef l tu fatig ween ; and 
when ai bigse'n tu moeltiplai dha strowks ov ween dey bai dhowz 
ov mcenths and yoez, 2 riali it iz now wcendar if ai felt diskce'rijd 
aet dha prospikt : 3 sow aftar a greyt dil ov rizn'ing and 
heziteyshan, thingks ai tu maiself — ai l 4 stop!" 

Dha daial kud skeasli kip its kauntinans dyuaring dhis 
haraeng ; boet rizyu'ming its graeviti, dhces riplaid : " Diar 
Mistar Pendyulam, ai aem riali astonisht dhat seech a yusful 
indce'stri'as poesn' aez yoself shud haev bin owvakce'm bai dhis 
sajeschan. It iz tru, yu haev dcen a greyt dil ov woek in yor 
taim ; sow haev wi 61, and ar laikli tu du, and dhow dhis mey 
fatig ces tu thingk ov, dha kweschan iz, wil it fatig ces tu du ? 
Wud yu nau du mi dha feyvar tu giv abaut haf-a-dcezn' 
strowks tu ilastreyt mai agyumant?" Dha pendyulam kam- 
plaid, and tikt siks taimz at its yuzhwal peys. 

"Nau," rizyu'md dha daial, "woz dhaet igzoe'shan fatiging 
tu yu?" "Not in dha list," riplaid dha pendyulam, "it iz 
not ov siks strowks dhat ai kampleyn, nor ov siksti, beet ov 
milyanz." " Veri gud," riplaid dha daial ; " beet rekalekt, dhat 
oldhow yu mey thingk ov a milyan strowks in an instant, yu 
ar rikwaiad tu eksikyut beet ween ; and dhat hauevar ofn' yu 
mey hlara'ftar haev tu swing, a mowmant wil olwiz bl givn' yu 
tu swing in." 

" Dhaet kansidareyshan staegaz mi, ai kanfes," sed dha 
pendyulam. 

" Dhen ai howp," aedid dha daial-pleyt, " wi shael 61 imi'jitli 
ritoen tu auar dyuti, for dha meydz wil lai in bed til nun if wi 
staend aidling dhces." 

Apon dhis, dha weyts, hu haed nevar bin akyuzd ov lait 
kondcekt, yuzd 61 dhear influ'ans in oejing him tu pro'sid ; 
when, aez widh ween kansent, dha whilz bigae'n tu toen, dha 
haendz bigae'n tu muv, dha pendyulam bigae'n tu swing, and tu 
its kredit, tikt aez laud aez evar ; whail a bim ov dha raizing 

Alternative forms : — l inoe'f. 2 yiaz. 3 prospekt. 4 wil. 



26 Hiding Lesn'z — Prowz. 

soen, dhat strimd thru a howl in dha kichin shoetar, shaming 
ful apon dha daial-pleyt, meyd it braitn' cep aez if ncething haad 
bin dha maatar. 

When dha famar keym daun tu brekfast, hi dikle'ad, apon 
luking set dha klok, dhat hiz woch haed geynd haf an auar in 
dha nait. — Jane Taylor. 

Dha Litl' Deozmak-Boi. 

Ween kowld Disembar moning, abaut dha bigining ov dhis 
senchari, a French ami woz krosing dhi iElps. Dha men lukt 
thin and hevi-aid from wont ov fud and slip ; and dha ptiar 
hosiz dhat woer draaging dha hevi goenz stoambl'd aat olmowst 1 
evri step. 

Boet dhear woz ween in dhaat ami hu simd tu injoi dha 
roef maching, and hu traampt along thru dha dip snow and 
kowld grey mist, aaz merili aaz if hi woer gowing tu a piknik. 
Hi woz a litl' droemar-boi, ten yoez 2 owld, huwz fresh, rowzi 
feys lukt veri brait and priti amoeng dha grim, skad feysiz ov 
dhi owld sowljaz. "When dha koeting wind whoeld a shauar 
ov snow in hiz feys, hi daasht it awey widh a laaf, and awowk 
dhi eko'z widh dha laivli rsetl' ov hiz droem, til it simd dhat 
dha hyu/j blaek roks araund woer 61 ringing in koras. 

" Bravow, litl' droemar ! " kraid a tol maan in a shsebi grey 
klowk. Dhis ofisar woz maching set dha hed ov dha lain widh 
a long powl in hiz hasnd, which hi stroek intu dha snow evri 
nau and then, tu si hau dip it woz. " Bravow, Pyer, mai boi ! 
Widh soech myuzik aez dheet, woen kud mach 61 dha wey tu 
Mosko' ! " 

Dha boi smaild, and reyzd hiz haand tu hiz kaep in salyut ; 
for dhis reef -luking maan woz now cedhar dhaen dha jenaral him- 
self — " Faiting Maakdonald," aaz hi woz kold — ween ov dha 
breyvist sowljaz in Frans, ov hum hiz men ytist tu sey dhat 
woen sait ov hiz feys in baetl' woz woeth a howl rejimant. 

Joest dhen a streynj, oenoethli saund woz hoed far awey oep 

Alternative forms: — a olmowst. 2 yiaz. 



Dha LitV Droemar-Boi. 27 

dha greyt whait mauntin-said. Evri mowmant it grti laudar 
and hashar, til set length it sweld intu a dip, hos roar. "On 
yor feysiz, lsedz ! " shautid dha jenaral. " An sevalansh iz 
koeming." 

Bifo'ar hiz men hsed taim tu o'bey, dha ruin woz on dhem. 
Daun thoendad dha trimendas mses ov snow, swiping laik a 
wotafol along dha nsero' lej-path ; and, kraeshing along widh it, 
keym hips ov stownz and graevl' and his oeth, and cepru'tid 
bushiz, and greyt bloks ov ais. For a mowmant 61 woz dak 
aez nait ; and when dhi sevalansh hsed past meni ov dha breyv 
felo'z hu hsed bin stsending on dha path woer nowwhear tu bi 
sin. Dhey hsed bin kserid owvar dha presipis, and woer 
idhar 1 kild or berid alaiv in dha snow. 

When dhear woz a chans tu luk araund, woen krai arowz 
from niali evri mauth : " Wheal iz auar droemar? Whear iz 
auar litl' droemar-boi ? " 

01 set woens, far bilow dhem, aut ov dha dak, cennown goelf 
dhat ley bitwi'n dhowz frauning roks, arowz dha feynt rowl ov 
a drcem, biting dha chaj ! Dha sowljaz statid, and bent 
igali fowad tu lisn'. Dhen went oep a shaut dhat shuk thi 
ear ! " Hi iz alaiv, koemridz ! Aur Pyer iz alaiv, aftar 61 ! 
Hi iz biting hiz droem stil, laik a breyv lsed ! Hi wontid tu haev 
dhi owld myuzik tu dha veri last ! Boat wi moest seyv him, 
laedz, or hi 1 2 friz tu deth daun dhear. Hi moest bi seyvd ! " 

" Hi shsel bi ! " browk in a dip vois ; and dha jenaral him- 
self woz sin stsending on dha bringk ov dha presipis, throwing 
of hiz klowk. 

" Now, now, jenaral ! " kraid dha grenadi'az widh woen vois ; 
" yu moest not rcen soech a risk sez dhset. Let woen ov oes gow 
insted ; yor laif iz woeth moar dhsen 61 ov auaz put tagedhar ! " 

" Mai sowljaz ar mai childran," ansad Msekdonald kwaiatli, 
" and now fadhar groejiz hiz own laif tu seyv hiz seen. Kwik 
nau, boiz ! Kast lus dha drseg-rowp ov dhset ksenan, lup it 
cendar mai amz, and let mi daun." 

Alternative forms : — l aidhar. 2 wil. 



28 Biding Lesnz — Prowz. 

Dha sowljaz o'beyd in sailans ; and dha nekst mowmant 
dhear breyv, tendar-hatid jenaral woz swinging in mid-ear, daun, 
daun, til hi vaenisht intu dha kowld, blaek debth 1 bilow. 
Maekdonald laendid seyfli aet dha fut ov dha presipis, and lukt 
aengshasli araund in soech ov Pyer; boet dha biting ov dha 
droem haed sist, and, in dhaet oful sailans, dhear woz ncething 
tu gaid dha breyv jenaral. 

"Pyer!" hi shautid, aez laudli aez hi kud, " whear ar yti, 
mai boi? " 

" Hiar, jenaral ! " ansad a wik vois. 

And, shuar anoef, 2 dhear woz dha litl' felo', haf berid in a 
hylij maund ov soft 3 snow. Maekdonald went tuwodz 4 him at 
weens, and oldhow hi saengk weyst-dip aet evri step, aet last 
richt dha spot. 

11 01 rait nau, mai breyv boi ! " sed dha jenaral. Tearing of 
hiz saesh, and noting woen end ov it tu dha rowp, hi baund 
Pyer and himself foemli tagedhar widh dhi cedhar end, and 
dhen geyv dha signal tu dro cep. 

When dha tu keym swinging cep wo3ns moar intu dha dey- 
lait, and dha sowljaz so dhear pet stil alaiv and oenhoet, chiar 
apon chiar raeng aut, rowling far baek along dha lain, til dha 
veri mauntinz dhamselvz 5 simd tu rijois. 

"Wi v 6 bin cendar fair and oendar snow tagedhar," sed 
Maekdonald, eheyfing dha boiz kowld haendz tendali, u and 
ncething shael pat oes aftar dhis, sow long aez wi bowth liv." 

And dha jenaral kept hiz weed. Yoez 7 leytar, when dha 
greyt woz woer 61 owvar, dhear mait haev bin sin, woking in 
dha gadn' ov a kwaiat koentri haus in dha sauth ov Frans, a 
stuping whait-head owld maen, hu woz now oedhar dhaen dha 
feymas Mashal Maekdonald ; and dha tol, sowljar-laik felo' 
apon huz am hi lind fdr sapot haed weens bin litl' Pyer dha 
droemar. 

Alternative forms : — x depth. 2 inoe'f. 3 soft. 4 todz. 
5 dhemselvz. 6 hsev. 7 ylaz. 



Dha Jauf. 29 

Dha Jauf. 

From Pcelgreyvz Areybya. 

A brod dip vaeli, disending lej aftar lej til its inamowst 
debths 1 ar hidn' from sait amid far-riching shelvz ov redish 
rok, bil6w evriwhear stoedid widh tcefts ov pam growvz and 
kloestaring frut-triz in dak- grin paechiz daun tu dha fadhist end 
ov its waindingz; a laj braun maes ov iregyular meysanri 
krauning a sentral hil ; biy6nd a tol and solitari tauar owva- 
liiking dhi opazit baengk ov dha holo', and fadhar daun smol 
raund toerits and fleet haus-tops haf berid amid dha gadn' 
fowlyij, dha howl plcenjd in a poepandikyular floed ov lait and 
hit ; soech woz dha foest aespikt ov dha Jauf aez wi nau 
aprowcht it from dha west. It woz a loevli sin, and simd yet 
moar sow tu auar aiz, wiari ov dha long dezo'leyshan thru which 
wi haed, widh hadli an iksepshan, joenid dey aftar dey sins auar 
last fearwel glimps ov Geyza and Paelistain oep tu dha foest 
entrans on inhae'bitid Areybya. " Laik dha Paeradais ov 
itoeniti, ncen k33n entar it til aftar haeving privyasli past owvar 
hel-brij," sez an iErab powit, diskraibing soem similar low- 
kaeliti in ^lljfari'an laendz. 

Riae'nimeytid bai dha vyu, wi pusht on auar jeydid bists, and 
woer olredi disending dha foest kraegi slowps ov dha vaeli, when 
tu hosman, wel drest and fuli amd aftar dha faeshan ov dhiz 
pats, keym oep tuwod 2 oes from dha taun, and aet woens 
salyutid oes widh a laud and hati " Marhaba,* 6r " Welkam " ; 
and widhaut fadhar prefas dhey aedid, "Alait and it," giving 
dhemselvz 3 dhi igza'mpl, ov dha fomar bai disending briskli 
from dhear lait limd hosiz, and centaiing a laj ledhar baeg ful 
ov eksalant deyts, and a wotar-skin, fild from dha roening 
spring ; dhen spreding aut dhiz mowst opatyun rifreshmants 
on dha rok, and aeding: " Wi woer shuar dhat yu moest bi 
hcenggri and thcesti, sow wi haev kcem redi pro'vaidid," dhey 
invaitid ces weens moar tu sit daun and bigin. 

* d represents a short vowel corresponding with d ; see § 162. 
Alternative forms : — 1 depths. 2 t6d. 3 dhamselvz. 



30 Biding Lesrtz — Prowz. 

Dha So'saiiti ov Buks. 

Yu wil admit, dautlis, dhat akoding tu dha sinseriti ov auar 
dizaiar dhat auar frendz mey bi tru, and auar kampaenyanz 
waiz, and in pro'poshan l tu dhi oenistnis and diskreshan widh 
which wi chuz bowth, wil bi dha jenaral 2 chansiz ov auar 
haepinis and yusfl'nis. 

Boat granting dhat wl haed bowth dha wil and dha sens tu 
chuz auar frendz wel, hau fyu ov ces haev dha pauar ! or, aet 
list, hau limitid, for mowst, iz dha sfiar ov chois ! Niali 61 
auar asowshieyshanz ar ditoemind bai chans or nisesiti, and 
ristriktid widhin a nasro' soekl'. Wi kaenot now hum wi wud, 
and dhowz hum wi now wi kaenot haev aet auar said when wi 
mowst nid dhem. 01 dha haiar soekl'z ov hyuman intelijans 
ar, tu dhowz bini'th, ownli mowmantarili and pashali owpn'. 
Wi mey, bai gud fochau, abteyn a glimps ov a greyt powit, and 
hiar dha saund ov hiz vois ; or put a kweschan tu a maen ov 
saians, and bi ansad gud-yumadli. 

Wi mey intru'd ten minits tok on a kaebinit mini star, ansad 
probabli widh woedz woes dhaen sailans, biing diseptiv ; or 
snaech, woens or twais in auar laivz, dha privilij ov throwing a 
bukey in dha path ov a prinses, 3 or aresting dha kaind glans ov 
a kwin. And yet dhiz mowmantari chansiz wi koevit, and 
spend auar yoez, 4 and paeshanz, and pauaz in poesyu't ov litl' 
moar dhaen dhiz, whail mintaim dhear iz a so'saiiti kantinywali 
owpn' tu oes ov pipl hu wil tok tu oes aez long aez wi laik, 
whotevar auar raengk or okyupeyshan — tok tu oes in dha best 
woedz dhey kaen chuz and ov dha things niarist dhear hats. 
And dhis so'saiiti, bikoz it iz sow nyumaras and sow jentl' ; and 
kaen bi kept weyting raund oes 61 dey long — kingz and steyts- 
man linggaring peyshantli, not tu grant odyans, boat tu geyn 
it — in dhowz pleynli foenisht and naero' aenti-rumz, auar 
bukkeys-shelvz, wi meyk now akaunt ov dhaet kcempani, pahaeps 
nevar lisn' tu a woed dhey wud sey 61 dey long. 

— Buskin : " Sesame and Lillies ". 

Alternative forms : — 1 praposhan. 2 jenral. 3 prinses. 4 yiaz. 



POWITBI. 

Dha Steit ov Bai-and-Bai. 

Ow shaen dha spot, mai yuthful frendz, ai oej yu tu biwe'ar ! 
Bigailing iz dha plezn't wey, and softli 1 bridhz dhi ear ; 
Yet noen haev evar past tu sinz inowbling, greyt and hai, 
Hu woens bigae'n tu linggar in dha strtt ov Bai-and-bai. 

Hau verid ar dhi imijiz araizing tu mai sait, 

Ov dhowz hu wisht tu shoen dha rong, hu loevd and praizd dha 

rait, 
Yet from dha silkn' bondz ov slowth dhey veynli strowv tu flai, 
Which held dhem jentli prizn'd in dha strit ov Bai-and-bai. 

"Mai projikts thraiv," dha moechant sed ; "when doebl'd iz 

mai stoar, 
Hau frili shsel mai redi gowld bi shauad amceng dha puar ! " 
Vast gru hiz welth, yet strowv hi not dha monaz tiar tu drai ; 
Hi nevar joenid onwad from dha strit ov Bai-and-bai ! 

" Fogfv 2 dhai oering broedhar ; hi haez wept and soefad long ! " 
Ai sed tu ween • hti ansad — " Hi haeth doan ml grivas rong ; 
Yet wil ai sik mai broedhar, and fagiv him ear ai dai." 
Alas ! Deth shotli faund him in dha strit ov Bai-and-bai ! 

Dha wiarid woeldling myuziz apon lost 3 and weystid deyz, 

Eizolvd tu toen hiard'ftar from dhi erar ov hiz weyz, 

Tu lift hiz grovling 4 thots from oeth, and fiks dhem on dha 

skai; 
Whai dcez hi linggar fondli in dha strit ov Bai-and-bai ? 

Alternative forms : — 1 softli. 2 fagiv. 3 lost. 4 grovl'ing. 

(31) 



32 Biding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

Dhen sheen dha spot, mai yuthful frendz ; woek on whail yet 

yu mey; 
Let not owld eyj 6t6yk 1 yu aez yu slowthfl'i diley, 
Lest yu shud geyz araund yu, and diskoe'var widh a sai, 
Yu haev richt dha haus ov " Nevar " — bai dha strit ov " Bai- 

and-bai." 

— Abdy. 

Dha J^ekd8 ov ETmz. 

Dha Jaekdo 2 saet on dha Kadinalz chear : 
Bishap and aebat and praiar woer dhear ; 

Meni a moengk, and meni a fraiar, 

Meni a nait, and meni a skwaiar, 
Widh a greyt meni moar ov lesar digri', — 
In suth a gudli kcempani ; 
And dhey soevd dha Lod Praimit on bendid nl. 

Nevar, ai win, Woz a praudar sin, 
Red ov in buks, or dremt ov in drimz, 
Dhaen dha Kadinal Lod Achbishap ov Eimz ! 

In and aut, Thru dha motli raut, 

Dhaet litr Jaekdo' kept hoping abaut ; 

Hiar and dhear, Laik a dog in a fear, 

Owvar koemfits and keyks, And dishiz and pleyts, 
Kaul and kowp, and rochit and pol, 
Maitar and krowzhar ! hi hopt apon 61 ! 

Widh sosi ear, Hi poecht on dha chear 

Whear, in steyt, dha greyt Lod Kadinal saet 
In dha greyt Lod Kadinalz greyt red haet ; 

And hi piad in dha feys Ov hiz Lodships Greys, 
Widh a saetisfaid luk, aez if hi wud sey, 
" Wi tu ar dha greytist fowks hiar ta-dey ! " 

Alternative forms : — l owvateyk. 2 Jsekd6'. The syllables are both 
accented, and it depends on the position of the word which should have tlie 
chief stress. It is on the second syllable when the word is followed by a 
pause. 



Dha Jcekdo ov Bimz. 33 

And dha prists widh 6, Mz soech friks dhey so, 
Sed, " Dha Devi' mcest bi in dhaet litl' Jaekdo' ! " 

Dha fist woz owvar, dha bod woz kliad, 
Dha flonz and dha kcestadz haed 61 disapi'ad, 
And siks litl' singing-boiz, — diar litl' sowlz ! 
In nais klin feysiz, and nais whait stowlz, 

Keym in odar dyu, Tu bai tu, 
Maching dhaet grsend rifektari thru ! 
A nais litl' boi held a gowldn' yiiar, 
Embost l and fild widh wotar aez pyuar, 
Mz eni dhat flowz bitwi'n Rimz and Namtiar ; 
Which a nais litl' boi stud redi tu kaach 
In a fain gowldn' haend-beysn' meyd tu maech. 
Tti nais litl' boiz, radhar moar grown, 
Kaarid laavn'dar wotar, and ow da Kalown ; 
And a nais litl' boi haed a nais keyk ov sowp, 
Woedhi ov woshing dha haendz ov dha Powp. 

Wosn litl' boi A naepkin boar, 
Ov dha best whait daiapar, frinjd widh pingk, 
And a kadinalz hset makt in " poemanant ingk." 

Dha greyt Lod Kadinal toenz set dha sait 
Ov dhiz nais litl boiz drest 61 in whait : 

From hiz finggar hi droz His kostli 2 toekwo'z j 3 
And, not thingking aet 61 abaut litl' Jaekdo'z, 

Dip6zits it streyt Bai dha said ov hiz pleyt, 
Whail dha nais litl' boiz on hiz Eminans weyt ; 
Til, when nowbadi 4 z driming ov eni soech thing, 
Dhaet litl' Jaekdo' hops of widh dha ring ! 

Dhear z a krai and a shaut, And a dyus ov a raut 
And nowbadi simz tu now whot dhear 5 abaut, 
Boat dha mcengks haev dhear pokits 61 toend insaid aut ; 

Dha fraiaz ar niling And hoenting, and filing 

Alternative forms : — 1 imbost. 2 kostli. 3 toekwa'z. 

4 nowbodi. 5 dhey ar. 

3 



34 Biding Lesn'z — Poiuitri. 

Dha kapit, dha floar, and dha wolz, and dha siling. 

Dha Kadinal dru. Of ich ploem-kcelad shu, 
And left his red stokings ikspowzd tu dha vyu ; 

Hi pips and hi fils In dha towz and dha hilz ; 
Dhey toen oep dha dishiz, — dhey toen oep dha pleyts, 
Dhey teyk oep dha powkar and powk aut dha greyts, 

Dhey toen oep dha roegz, Dhey igzae'min dha moegz : 

Beet now ! — now soech thing ; — Dhey kant faind dha ring ! 
And dhi .33 bat dikle'ad dhat, " when nowbadi twigd it, 
Soem raskl' or oedhar haed popt in, and prigd it " ! 

Dha Kadinal rowz widh a dignifaid luk, 

Hi kold for hiz kaendl', hiz bel, and hiz buk ! 
In howli aenggar and paias grif, 
Hi solamli koest thaet raskali thif ! 
Hi koest him get bod, hi koest him in bed ; 
From dha sowl ov his fut tu dha kraun ov his ov hiz hed ; 
Hi koest him in sliping, dhat evari 1 nait 
Hi shud drim ov dha devl', 2 and weyk in a frait ; 
Hi koest him in iting, hi koest him in dringking, 
Hi koest him in kofing, 3 in snizing, in wingking ; 
Hi koest him in siting, in staending, in laiing, 
Hi koest him in woking, in raiding, in flaiing, 
Hi koest him in living, hi koest him in daiing ! 

Nevar woz hoed soech a teribl' 4 koes ! 

Boet whot geyv raiz Tu now litl' sapraiz, 

Nowbadi 5 simd woen peni dha woes ! 

Dha dey woz gon, 6 Dha nait keym on, 
Dha moengks and dha fraiaz dhey soecht til don ; 

When dha saekristn' so, On kroempl'd klo, 
Koem limping a ptiar litl' leym Jaekdo' ; 

Now longgar gey, Mz on yestadey 7 ; 
Hiz fedhaz 61 simd tu bi toend dha rong wey, 

Alternative forms : — x evri. 2 devil. 3 kofing. 4 terabl'. 
5 nowbodi, 6 gon. 7 yestadi 4 



Dha Jcekdo ov Bimz. 35 

Hiz pinyanz drupt — hi kud hadli staend, — 
Hiz hed woz aez bold aez dha pam ov yor haend ; 

Hiz ai sow dim, Sow weystid ich lim, 
Dhat, hidlis ov graemar, dhey 61 kraid, " Dhmt s him ! — 
Dhaet s dha skaemp dhat haez doen dhis skaendalas thing ! 
Dhaet s dha thif dhat haez got mi 1 Lod Kadinalz Ring ! " 

Dha pliar lit!' Jaekdo', When dha moengks hi so, 
Fibli geyv vent tu dha gowst ov a ko ; 
And toend hiz bold hed, aez moech aez tu sey, 
11 Prey bi sow gud aez tu wok dhis wey ! " 

Slowar and slowar, Hi limpt on bifo'ar, 
Til dhey keym tu dha baek ov dha belfri doar, 

When dha foest thing dhey so, 

Midst dha stiks and dha stro, 

Woz dha ring in dha nest ov dhaet litl' Jaekdo' ! 

Dhen dha Lod Kadinal kold for hiz buk, 
And of dhaet teribl' koes hi tuk ; 

Dha myut ikspreshan 2 Soevd in lyli ov kanf eshan, 3 
And, biing dhoes koepl'd widh ful restityushan, 
Dha Jaekdo got plinari aebso'lyushan ! 
When dhowz woedz woer hoed, Dhaet puar litl' boed 
Woz sow cheynjd in a mowmant, t woz riali absoed. 4 

Hi gru slik, and f aet ; In adishan tu dhaet, 
A fresh krop ov f edhaz keym thik aez a maet ! 

Hiz teyl waegl'd moar Ivn' dhaen bifo'ar ; 
Beet now longgar it waegd widh an impyudant 5 ear, 
Now longgar hi poecht on dha Kadinalz chear. 

Hi hopt nau abaut Widh a geyt divaut ; 
Mt Maetinz, aet Vespaz, hi nevar woz aut ; 
And sow far from eni moar pilfaring didz, 
Hi olwiz 6 simd teling dha konfesaz 7 bidz. 

Alternative forms: — 1 mai. 2 ekspreshan. 3 konfeshan. 4 eebsoed. 
5 impidant. 6 olweyz. 7 kanfesaz, when properly accented on the 

second syllable, but the rhythm requires us here to shift the accent to the first 
syllable (this being the usual pronunciation a century ago. — Ed.). 



36 Riding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

If eni woen laid, or if eni woen swoar, 

/S 

Or slcembad in prear-taim and haepn'd tu snoar, 

Dhaet gud Jaekdo' Wud giv a greyfc " K6," 
Mz moech aez tu sey, " Downt dtiw sow eni moar ! " 
Whail meni rima'kt, aez hiz maenar dhey so, 
Dhat dhey " nevar haed nown soech a paias Jaekdo' ! " 

Hi long livd dha praid Ov dhaet koentri said, 
And set last in dhi owdar ov saengktiti daid ; 

When, aez woedz woer tu feynt, Hiz merits tu peynt, 
Dha konkleyv l ditoemind tu meyk him a seynt ! 
And on nyuli-meyd seynts and powps, aez yu now, 
It s dha koestam set Eowm, nyu neymz tu bistow, 
Sow dhey kaenanaizd him bai dha neym ov Jim Krow ! 

— Barham. 

OV DHA CHAILD WIDH DHA BoED ^T DHA BUSH. 

" Mai litl' boed, hau kaenst dhau sit, 

And sing amidst sow meni thonz ? 
Let mi boet howld oepon dhi get ; 

Mai loev widh onar dhi adonz. 

" Dhau at set prezn't litl' woeth ; 

Faiv f adhingz noen wil giv for dhi ; 
Boet pridhi, litl' boed, koem foth ; 

Dhau ov moar vaelyu art tu mi. 

" T 2 iz tru, it iz soenshain 3 ta-dey, 

Ta-moro' boedz wil haev a stom ; 
Mai priti woen, koem dhau awey, 

Mai buzam dhen shael kip dhi worn. 

11 Dhau soebjikt at tu kowld a 4 naits, 

When daknis iz dhai koevaring, 5 
Mt dey z 6 dhai deynjar greyt bai kaits, 

Hau kaenst dhau dhen sit dhear and sing ? 

Alternative forms : — l kongkleyv. 2 it. 3 soe'nshain. 

4 ov. 5 kcBvring. 6 iz. 



Dha Distrozkshan ov Sence'karib. 37 

" Dhai fud iz skeas and skaenti tti, 

T iz woemz and traesh which dhau dcest it ; 

Dhai prezn't steyt ai piti du, 

Koem, ai l 1 pro'vaid dhi betar mit. 

" Ai 1 fid dhi widh whait bred and milk, 

And shugarploemz, if dhem dhau kreyv ; 
Ai 1 koevar dhi widh fainist silk 
Dhat from dha kowld ai mey dhi seyv. 

" Mai fadhaz paelas shael bi dhain, 

Yey, in it dhau shaelt sit and sing ; 
Mai litT boed, if dhau It 2 bi main, 

Dha howl yoer 3 raund shgel bi dhai spring. 

" Ai 1 tich dhi 61 dha nowts set kot ; 

(Entho't ov myuzik dhau shaelt pley ; 
And 61 dhat dhidhar du rizo't, 

Shael preyz dhi for it evri dey. 

" Ai 1 kip dhi seyf from kaet and koer, 
Now maenar a 4 ham shael kcem tu dhi ; 

Yey, ai wil bi dhai scekarar, 

Mai buzam shael dhai kaebin bi." 

Beet low, bihowld, dha boed iz gon ; 5 

Dhiz chamingz wud not meyk hoer yild ; 

Dha chaild z left aet dha Bush alown, 
Dha boed flaiz yondar oar 6 dha fild. 

— John Bunyan. 

Dha Distec3kshan ov Sen^'kaeib. 7 

Dhi Asiryan 8 keym daun laik a wulf on dha f owld, 
And hiz kowhots woer gliming in poepl' and gowld ; 
And dha shin ov dhear spiaz woz laik staz on dha si, 
When dha bin weyv rowlz naitli on dip Gaslili'. 9 

Alternative forms : — 1 wil. 2 wilt. 3 yiar. 4 ov. °gon. 
8 owvar. 7 Sinse'kerib. 8 ^siri'an, Asiri'an. 9 Geelili. 



38 Biding Lesn'z — Potvitri. 

Laik dha livz ov dha forist when soemar iz grin, 
Dhaet howst widh dhear baenaz set scenset woer sin : 
Laik dha livz ov dha forist when Otam haeth blown, 
Dhaet howst on dha moro' ley widhad and strown ! 

For dhi Eynjal 1 ov Deth spred hiz wingz on dha blast, 
And bridhd in dha feys ov dha fow aez hi past ; 
And dhi aiz ov dha slipaz waekst dedli and chil, 
And dhear hats boat woens hivd, and for evar gru. stil ! 

And dhear ley dha stid widh hiz nostril 61 waid 
Boat thru it dhear rowld not dha breth ov hiz praid ; 
And dha fowm ov hiz gasping ley whait on dha toef, 
And kowld aez dha sprey ov dha rok-biting soef. 

And dhear ley dha raidar disto'tid and peyl, 
Widh dha dyu. on hiz brau and dha roast on hiz meyl ; 
And dha tents woer 61 sailant, dha baenaz alown, 
Dha lansiz oenliftid, dha trcempit oenblown. 

And dha wido'z ov iEshar ar laud in dhear weyl, 
And dhi aidalz 2 ar browk 3 in dha tempi' ov Beyl ; 4 
And dha mait ov dha Jentail, oensmowt bai dha sod, 
Haeth meltid laik snow in dha glans ov dha L6d ! 



— Byron. 



Dha LLebinaz ov Inggland. 

Yi Maerinaz ov Inggland 

Dhat gad auar neytiv siz ! 

Huz flaeg haez breyvd, a thauzand yoez, 

Dha baetr and dha briz ! 

Y6r gloryas 5 staendad lanch a gen 6 

Tu maech anoedhar fow ; 

And swip thru dha dip, 

Whail dha stomi waindz " du blow ; 

Alternative forms: — l eynjl'. 2 aidl'z. 3 browkn'. 4 Beyal. 
5 glori'as. 6 ageyn. 7 windz. 



Dha Mczrinaz ov Inggland. 39 

Whail dha bsetl' reyjiz laud and long 
And dha stdmi waindz du blow. 

Dha spirits ov yor fadhaz 

Shsel stat from evri weyv — 

For dha dek it woz dhear fild ov feym, 

And Owshan woz dhear greyv : 

Whear Bleyk and maiti Nelsn' fel 

Yor msenli hats shael glow, 

Mz yi swip thru dha dip, 

Whail dha stomi waindz du blow ; 

Whail dha bsetl' reyjiz laud and long 

And dha stomi waindz du blow. 

Britse'nya nidz now bulwoeks, 

Now tauaz along dha stip ; 

Hoer mach iz oar 1 dha mauntin weyvz, 

Hoer howm iz on dha dip. 

Widh thoendaz from hoer neytiv owk 

Shi kwelz dha flcedz bilow — 

Mz dhey roar on dha shoar, 

When dha stomi waindz du blow ; 

When dha bsetl' reyjiz laud and long, 

And dha stomi waindz du blow. 

Dha mityar fiaeg ov Inggland 

Shsel yet terifik boen ; 

Til deynjaz troebl'd nait dipa/t 

And dha star ov pis ritoen. 

Dhen, dhen, yi owshan-woryaz ! 2 

Aur song and fist shsel flow 

Tu dha feym ov yor neym, 

When dha stom hsez sist tu blow ; 

When dha faiari fait iz hoed now moar, 

And dha stom hsez sist tu blow. 

— T. Campbell. 

Alternative forms : — l owvar. 2 wori'az. 



40 Biding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

A 

Ansae tu a Chaildz Kweschan. 

DO yu ask whot dha boedz sey? Dha spsero', dha doev, 
Dha linit, and throesh, sey " Ai loev and ai loev ! " 
In dha wintar dhear l sailant, dha wind iz sow strong ; 
Whot it sez ai downt 2 now, boet it singz a laud song. 
Boat grin livz and blosamz and soeni worn wedhar, 
And singing and lceving, 61 koem baek tagedhar. 
Boat dha lak iz sow brimful ov glsednis and lcev, 
Dha grin fildz bilow him, dha blu skai abcev, 
Dhat hi singz and hi singz, and for evar singz hi, 
" Ai loev mai loev, and mai lcev loevz mi." 

— Coleridge. 

Dha Pain-zepl' and dha Bi. 

Dha pain-eepl'z in tripl' row 
Woer basking hot, and 61 in blow ; 
A bi ov mowst dizoening teyst 
Poesi'vd 3 dha freygrans aaz hi past ; 
On igar wing dha spoilar keym, 
And soecht for kraeniz in dha freym, 
Oejd hiz atemt on evri 4 said, 
Tu evri peyn hiz trcengk aplaid : 
Boat stil in veyn — dha freym woz tait, 
And ownli poevyas tu dha lait : 
Dhoes hseving weystid haf hiz dey, 
Hi trimd hiz nait anoadhar wey. 

Auar diar dilaits ar 6fn' soach : 
Ekspowzd 5 tu vyu, boat not tu toech, 
Dha sait auar fulish hat infleymz, 
Wi long for pain-aeprz in freymz : 
Widh howplis wish ween luks and linggaz, 

Alternative forms :— 1 dhey ar. 2 du not. 3 pasivd. 

4 evari. 5 ikspowzd. 



Dha Bitdiad Kcet. 41 

Woen breyks dha glas and koets hiz finggaz, 
Beet dhowz hum truth and wizdam lid, 
Keen geedhar heeni from a wid. 

— Cowper. 

Dha Bita*iad Ket. 

A powits kaet, sid6yt and greyv 
Mz powit wel kud wish tu haev, 
Woz moech adiktid tu inkwaiar, 
F6r nuks tu which shi mait ritaiar, 
And whear, sikyu'ar aez maus in chingk, 
Shi mait ripowz, or sit and thingk. 

Sosmtaimz x aesending 2 debane'ar, 
An aspl' tri, or lofti pear, 
Lojd widh kanvinyans in dha fok, 
Shi wocht dha gadnar aet hiz woek : 
Scemtaimz hoer iz and solas sot 
In an owld emti wotring 3 -pot ; 
Dhear, wonting noething seyv a feen 
Tu sim soem nimf in hoer sidae'n, 
Apserald in igzae'ktist sot, 
And redi tu bi bon tu kot. 

Boet lcev ov cheynj it simz hsez pleys 
Not ownli in auar waizar reys ; 
Kaets olso' fil, aaz wel aez wi, 
Dhaet paeshanz fos, and sow did shi. 
Hoer Maiming, shi bigae'n tu faind, 
Ekspowzd 4 hoer tu moech tu dha waind, 5 
And dhi owld yutansil 6 ov tin 
Woz kowld and kcemfatlis widhin : 
Shi dhearfor wisht, insted ov dhowz, 
Soem pleys ov moar siri'n ripowz, 

Alternative forms : — 1 soe'mtaimz. 2 asending. 3 w6taring. 
4 ikspowzd. 5 wind. 6 yutensil. 



42 Biding Lesriz — Poivitri. 

Whear nidhar 1 kowld mait koem, nor ear 
Tu rudli wontan widh hoer hear, 
And sot it in dha laiklyist 2 mowd, 
Widhin hoer mastaz snoeg abowd. 

A droar, it chanst, set botam laind 
Widh linin ov dha softist 3 kaind, 
Widh soech aez moechants intro'dyu's 
From Indya, for dha leydiz yus — 
A droar imp6nding oar 4 dha rest, 
Haf owpn', in dha topmowst chest, 
Ov debth 5 anoef , 6 and noen tu spear, 
Invaitid hoer tu slcembar dhear. 
Pus, widh dilait biyond ikspreshan, 
Soeveyd dha sin and tuk po'zeshan. 
Rikce'mbant set hoer iz, ear long, 
And lceld bai hoer own hcem-drcem song, 
Shi left dha keaz ov laif bihaind 
And slept aez shi wud slip hoer last ; 
When in keym, hoezifli " inklaind, 
Dha cheymbameyd, and sheet it fast ; 
Bai now maligniti impeld, 
Boat 61 oenkonshas hum it held. 

Aweykn'd bai dha shok, kraid Pus, 
" Woz evar kast atendid dhces ? 
Dhi owpn' droar woz left, ai si, 
Miali tu pruv a nest for mi ; 
For sun aez ai woz wel kampowzd, 
Dhen keym dha meyd, and it woz klowzd. 
Hau smudh dhiz koechifs, and hau swit ! 
Ow ! whot a delikit ritri't. 
Ai wil rizain miself 8 tu rest, 
Til Sol, diklaining in dha west, 

Alternative forms: — a naidhar. 2 laikliist. 8 softist. 4 owvar. 
5 depth. 6 ince'f . 7 hauswaifli. 8 maiself. 



Dha Bitdiad Kcet. 43 

Shgel kol tu scepar, when, now daut, 
Stizn' wil ko3m and let mi aut." 

Dhi ivning keym, dha soen dis^ndid, 
And Pus rim^ynd stil oenatendid. 
Dha nait rowld tadili awey, 
(Widh hoer, indi'd, t woz nevar dey), 
Dha spraitli mon hoer kos rinyu'd, 
Dhi ivning grey ageyn 1 insyu'd ; 
And Pus keym intu maind now moar 
Dhsen if intu'md dha dey bifo'ar. 
Widh hcenggar pincht, and pincht for rum, 
Shi nau priseyjd aprowching dtim, 
Nor slept a singgl' wingk, or poed, 
Konshas ov jepadi inkoed. 

Dhaet nait, bai chans, dha powit woching 
Hoed an ineksplikabl' skraeching ; 
Hiz nowbl' hat went pit-a-paet, 
And tu himself hi sed, " Whot's dhset? " 
Hi dru dha koetin aBt hiz said, 
And foth hi pipt, beet ncething spaid ; 
Yet, bai hiz iar 2 dir6ktid, 3 gest 
Scemthing imprizn'd in dha chest, 
And, dautful whot, widh prudn't kear 
Eizolvd it shud kantinyu dhear. 
Mt length a vois which wel hi nyu, 
A long and melankali 4 myu, 
Salyuting hiz powetik iaz, 5 
Kansowld 6 him and dispeld hiz fiaz. 
Hi left hiz bed, hi trod dha floar, 
And gaen 7 in heyst dha droz eksploar ; 8 
Dha lowist foest, and widhaut 9 stop 
Dha rest in odar, tu dha top ; 

Alternative forms : — a agen. 2 yoer. 3 dair^ktid. 4 melangkali. 
yoez. 6 kons6wld. 7 bigse'n. 8 iksplQ'ar. 9 widhaut. 



44 Biding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

For t iz a truth wel nown tu mowst, 

Dhat whotsowevar thing iz lost, 

Wi sik it, ear it koem tu lait, 

In evri kraeni boet dha rait. 

— Foth skipt dha kaet, not nau ripll't, 

Mz oest, widh eri self-kansit, 

Nor in hoer own fond aeprihenshan 

A thlm for 61 dha woeldz atenshan ; 

Boet modist, sowbar, kyuad ov 61 

Hoer nowshanz haipabolikl', 

And wishing for a pleys ov rest 

Enithing radhar dhaen a chest. 

Dhen stept dha powit intu bed 

Widh dhis riflekshan in hiz hed : — 

Moral. 
Biwe'ar ov tu sablaim a sens 
Ov yor own woeth and konsikwans ! 
Dha maen hu drimz himself sow greyt, 
And hiz impo'tans ov soech weyt, 
Dhat 61 araund, in 61 dhat s dcen, 
Moest muv and aekt for him alown, 
Wil loen in skul ov tribyuleyshan, 

Dha foli ov hiz ekspekteyshan. 

— W. Cowper, 

KONTEST BITWfN DHA NOWZ AND DHI AlZ. 

BiTwt'N Nowz and Aiz a streynj kontest arowz, 

Dha spektakl'z set dhem oenhaa'pili rong ; 
Dha point in dispyu't woz, sez 61 dha woeld nowz, 

Tu which dha sed spektakl'z 6t tu bilong. 

Sow Toeng woz dha loyar, and agyud dha koz 

Widh a greyt dil ov skil, and a wig ful ov loening ; 

Whail Chif-baeran Iar 1 saet tu baslans dha 16z, 
Sow feymd for hiz taelant in naisli dizoening. 

Alternative forms : — x yoer. 



Jon Gilpin. 45 

" In biha'f ov dha Nowz, it wil kwikli apiar, 
And yor lodship," hi sed, " wil oendautidli faind 

Dhat dha Nowz haez haed spektakl'z olwiz in wear, 
Which amaunts tu pazeshan, taim aut ov maind." 

Dhen howlding dha spektakl'z oep tu dha kot — 
" Yor lodship abzoevz dhey ar meyd widh a straedl' 

Mz waid aez dha rij ov dha nowz iz ; in shot, 
Dizaind tu sit klows tu it, joest laik a saedP. 

" Agen, 1 wud yor lodship a mowmant sapowz 
(T iz a keys dhat haez haepn'd, and mey bi agen) 

Dhat dha vizij or kauntinans haed not a nowz ; 
Prey, hu wud, or hu kud, wear spektakl'z dhen ? 

" On dha howl, it apiaz, and mai agyumant showz, 

Widh a rizning 2 dha kot wil nevar kandem, 
Dhat dha spektakl'z pleynli woer meyd for dha Nowz, 

And dha Nowz woz aez pleynli int^ndid for dhem." 

Dhen shifting hiz said, aez a loyar nowz hau, 

Hi plidid ageyn on biha'f ov dhi Aiz ; 
Beet whot woer hiz agyumants fyu pipl' now, 

For dha kot did not thingk dhey woer ikwali waiz. 

Sow hiz lodship dikri'd, in a greyv, solam town, 

Disaisiv and kliar, widhaut ween if or bat, 
Dhat — " When^var dha Nowz put hiz spektakl'z on, 

Bai deylait or kaendl'-lait — Aiz shud bi shoet ". 

— W. Cowper. 

Jon Gilpin. 

Jon Gilpin woz a sitizn' 

Ov kredit and rinaun, 
A treyn-baend kaeptin ik woz hi 

Ov feymas Loendan Taun. 

Alternative forms : — x ageyn. 2 rtzn'ing. 



46 Riding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

John Gilpinz spauz sed tu hoer diar, 

" Dhow wedid wi haev bin 
Dhis twais ten tidyas yoez, 1 yet wi 

Now holidey 2 haev sin. 

" Ta-moro' iz aur weding-dey, 

And wi wil dhen ripe'ar 
(Entu dha Bel set Edmantn', 

01 in a sheyz and pear. 

" Mai sistar and mai sistaz chaild, 

Maiself, 3 and childran thri, 
Wil fil dha sheyz ; sow yu moest raid 

On hosbaek aftar wi." 

Hi sun riplaid, " Ai du admaiar 

Ov wumankaind boet ween, 
And yu ar shi, mai diarist diar, 

Dheafor it sheel bi doen. 

11 Ai aem a linindreypar bowld, 

Mz 61 dha woeld doeth now, 
And mai gud frend dha kaelindar, 

Wil lend hiz hos tu gow." 

Kwowth Mistris Gilpin, " Dhaet's wel sed ! 

And, for dhat wain iz diar, 
Wi wil bi foenisht widh auar own, 

Which iz bowth brait and kliar." 

Jon Gilpin kist hiz loeving waif, 

Ojoid woz hi tu faind 
Dhat, dhow on plezhar shi woz bent, 

Shi haed a frugl' maind. 

Dha moning keym, dha sheyz woz brot, 

Boet yet woz not alaud 
Tu draiv cep tu dha doar, lest 61 

Shud sey dhat shi woz praud. 

Alternative forms : — 1 yiaz. 2 holidi. 3 mis61f . 



Jon Gilpin. 47 

Sow thri doz of dha sheyz woz steyd, 

Whear dhey did 61 get in, 
Siks preshas sowlz, and 61 agog 

Tu daesh thru thik and thin. 

Smaek went dha whip, raund went dha whilz, 

Woer nevar fowks sow glaed ; 
Dha stownz did raetl' cendani'th, 

Mz if Chipsaid woer maed. 

Jon Gilpin, set his hosiz said, 

Sizd fast dha flowing meyn, 
And cep hi got, in heyst tu raid, 

Boet sun keym daun ageyn ; 

For saedl'-tri skeas richt haed hi, 

His joeni tu bigin, 
When, toening raund hiz hed, hi so 

Thri koestamaz koem in. 

Sow daun hi keym ; for 16s ov taim, 

Oldhow it grivd him soar, 
Yet 16s ov pens, ful wel hi nyu, 

Wud trcebl' him moech moar. 

T 1 woz long bifo'ar dha koestamaz 

Woer syutid tu dhear maind, 
When Beti, skriming, keym daunste'az, 

" Dha wain iz left bihaind ! " 

" Gud laek ! " kwowth hi, " yet bring it mi, 

Mai ledhan belt laikwaiz 2 
In which ai bear mai troesti sod 

When ai du eksasaiz." 

Nau Mistris Gilpin (keaful sowl !) 

Haed tuw stown-botl'z faund, 
Tu howld dha likar dhat shi loevd, 

And kip it seyf and saund. 

Alternative forms : — x it. 2 laikwaiz. 



48 Riding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

Ich botl' heed a koeling iar, 1 

Thraw which dha belt hi dru, 
And hoeng a botl' on ich said, 

Tu meyk hiz baelans tru. 

Dhen owvar 61, dhat hi mait bi 

Ikwipt from top tu tow, 
Hiz long red klowk, wel-broesht and nit, 

Hi msenfuli did throw. 

Nau si him mauntid woens ageyn 

Apon hiz nimbi' stid, 
Ful slowli peysing oar 2 dha stownz, 

Widh koshan and gud hid. 

Boet fainding sun a smudhar rowd 

Bini'th hiz wel-shod fit, 
Dha snoting bist bigae'n tu trot, 

Which gold him in hiz sit. 

Sow " Fear and softli ! " 3 Jon hi kraid, 

Boat Jon hi kraid in veyn ; 
Dhset trot bikeym a gaelap sun, 

In spait ov koeb and reyn. 

Sow stuping daun, gez nidz hi mcest 

Huw kaenot sit oeprait, 
Hi graspt dha meyn widh bowth hiz haendz, 

And ik widh 61 hiz mait. 

Hiz hos, hu nevar in dhaet sot 

Heed heendl'd bin bifo'ar, 
Whot thing apon hiz bask haed got 

Did wcendar moar and moar. 

Awey went Gilpin, nek or not ; 

Awey went haet and wig ; 
Hi litl' dremt, when hi set aut, 

Ov rcening seech a rig. 

Alternative forms : — x yoer. 2 owvar. 3 softli. 



Jon Gilpin. 49 

And nau, aez hi went bauing daun 

Hiz riking hed ful low, 
Dha botl'z tweyn bihaind hiz baek 

Woer shaetad aet a blow. 

Daun raen dha wain intu dha rowd, 

Mowst pityas tu bi sin, 
Which meyd hiz hosiz flaengks tu smowk 

Mz dhey haed beystid bin. 

Boat stil hi simd tu kaeri weyt, 

Widh ledhan goedl' breyst ! 
For 61 mait si dha botl'-neks 

Stil daenggling set hiz weyst. 

Dhoes 61 thru meri Izlingtn' 

Dhiz gaembl'z hi did pley, 
(Entil x hi keym centu dha Wosh 

Ov Edmantn' sow gey. 

And dhear hi thru dha Wosh abaut 

On bowth saidz ov dha wey, 
Jcest laik oentu a trosndling mop, 

Or a waild gus aet pley. 

2Et Edmantn, hiz loeving waif 

From dha baelkowni 2 spaid 
Hoer tendar hoezband, woendring 3 moech 

Tu si hau hi did raid. 

" Stop, stop, Jon Gilpin ! — Hiar z dha haus " — 

Dhey 61 set woens did krai ; 
"Dha dinar weyts, and wi ar taiad " ; 

Sed Gilpin — " Sow aem ai ! " 

Boat yet hiz hos woz not a whit 

Inklaind tu taeri dhear ; 
For whai ? — hiz ownar haed a haus 

Ful ten mailz of, set Wear. 

Alternative forms : — l ce'ntil. 2 bselkani. 3 woendaring. 

4 



50 Biding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

Sow laik an aero' swift hi flu, 

Shot bai an achar strong ; 
Sow did hi flai — which bringz mi tu 

Dha midl' ov mai song. 

Awey went Gilpin aut ov breth, 

And soar agenst hiz wil, 
Til set hiz frendz dha kaelindaz 

Hiz hos aet last stud stil. 

Dha kaelindar, ameyzd tu si 

Hiz neybar in seech trim, 
Leyd daun hiz paip, flu tu dha geyt, 

And dhoes akostid him : 

11 Whot nyuz ? whot nyuz ? yor taidingz tel 

Tel mi yu moest and shael — 
Sey, whai bear-hedid yu ar kcem, 

Or whai yu koem aet 61 ? " 

Nau Gilpin haed a plezn't wit, 

And loevd a taimH jowk ; 
And dhoes centu dha kaelindar 

In meri gaiz hi spowk : 

1 ' Ai keym bikoz 1 ydr hos wud kcem ; 

And, if ai wel fobowd, 2 
Mai haet and wig wil sun bi hiar, 

Dhey ar apon dha rowd." 

Dha kaelindar, rait glaed tu faind 

Hiz frend in meri pin, 
Eitoend him not a singgl' woed 

Beet tu dha haus went in ; 

Whens streyt hi keym, widh haet and wig, 

A wig dhat flowd bihaind ; 
A haet not moech dha woes for wear ; 

Ich kcemli in its kaind. 

A Iternative forms : — ' bikoz. 2 f abowd. 



Jon Gilpin. 51 



Hi held dhem cep, and in hiz toen 
Dhces showd hiz redi wit : 

"Mai hed iz twais aez big aez yoz, 
Dhey dheafor nidz moest fit. 

Boet let mi skreyp dha doet awey, 
Dhat haengz apon yor feys ; 

And stop and it, for wel yu mey 
Bi in a hoenggri keys." 

Sed Jon, "It is mai weding-dey, 
And 61 dha woeld wud stear, 

If waif shud dain set Edmantan, 
And ai shud dain at Wear." 

Sow, toening tu hiz hos, hi sed, 
" Ai aem in heyst tu dain ; 

T woz for yor plezhar yu keym hiar, 
Yu shael gow bask f6r main." 

Aa loeklis spich, and butlis bowst ! 

For which hi peyd ful diar ; 
For, whail hi speyk, a breying as 

Did sing mowst laud and kliar : 

Wherae't hiz hos did snot, aez hi 

Haed hoed a laian roar, 
And gaelapt of widh 61 hiz mait, 

Mz hi haed doen bifo'ar. 

Awey went Gilpin, and awey 
Went Gilpinz haet and wig ; 

Hi lost dhem sunar dhaen set foest, 
For whai ? — dhey woer tu big. 

Nau Mistris Gilpin, when shi s6 
Hoer hcezband powsting daun 

Intu dha koentri far awey, 
Shi puld aut haf-a-kraun. 



52 Biding LesrCz — Powitri. 

And dhoes oentu dha yuth shi sed, 

Dhat drowv dhem tu dha Bel, 
11 Dhis shsel bi yoz, when yu bring baek 

Mai hoezband seyf and wel." 

Dha yuth did raid, and sun did mit 

Jon koeming bsek ameyn ; 
Hum in a trais hi traid tu stop, 

Bai kaeching set hiz reyn ; 

Boet not poefoming 1 whot hi ment, 

And glasdli wud haev dcen, 
Dha fraitn'd stid hi fraitn'd moar, 

And meyd him fastar roen. 

Awey went Gilpin, and awey 

Went powst-boi set hiz hilz, 
Dha powst-boiz hos rait glsed tu mis 

Dha loembring 2 ov dha whilz. 

Siks jentl'man 3 upon dha rowd 

Dhoes siing Gilpin flai, 
Widh powst-boi sksempring 4 in dha riar, 

Dhey reyzd dha hyu and krai : — 

" Stop thif ! stop thif ! — A haiweyman ! " 

Not ween ov dhem woz myut ; 
And 61 and ich dhat past dhaet wey 

Did join in dha poesyu't. 5 

And nau dha toenpaik geyts ageyn 

Flu owpn' in shot speys : 
Dha towl-man thinking, aez bifo'ar, 

Dhat Gilpin rowd a reys. 

And sow hi did, and ween it tu ! 
For hi got foest tu taun ; 

Alternative forms : — 1 pafoming. 2 loembaring. 3 jentl'men. 
4 skaemparing. 5 pasyut. 



JSt Si. 53 



Nor stopt, til whear hi hsed got oep 
Hi did ageyn get daun. 

Nau let 03s sing, Long liv dha king, 

And Gilpin, long liv hi ; 
And, when hi nekst doeth raid abrod, 

Mey ai bi dhear tu si ! 

Mt St. 



— W. Coivper. 



A wet shit and a flowing si, 

A waind dhat folo'z fast 
And filz dha whait and roeshing seyl 

And bendz dha gselant mast ; 
And bendz dha gselant mast, mi 1 boiz, 

Whail laik dhi igl' fri 
Awey dha gud ship flaiz, and livz 

Owld Inggland on dha li. 

Ow for a soft 2 and jentl' waind ! 3 

Ai hoed a fear woen krai ; 
Boat giv tu mi dha snoring briz 

And whait weyvz hiving hai ; 
And whait weyvz hiving hai, mi laedz, 

Dha gud ship tait and fri : — 
Dha woeld ov wotaz iz auar howm, 

And meri men ar wi. 

Dhear z tempist in yon honid 4 mun, 

And laitning in yon klaud ; 
Beet hak dha myuzik, maerinaz ! 

Dha waind iz paiping laud ; 
Dha waind iz paiping laud, mi boiz, 

Dha laitning flseshiz fri — 
Whail dha holo' owk auar pselas iz, 

Auar heritij dha si. 

— A. Cunningham. 

Alternative forms : — 1 mai. 2 soft. 3 wind. 4 h6nd. 



54 Riding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

Wilyam Tel. 

Kcem, list tu mi, and yu shsel hiar, 

A teyl ov whot bifel 
A feymas msen ov Switsaland, — 

Hiz neym woz Wilyam Tel. 

Niar Roisiz baengk, from dey tu dey, 

Hiz litl' flok hi led, 
Bai prudant thrift and hadi toil 

Kantent tu oen hiz bred. 

Nor woz dha hcentaz kraft oennown : _ 

In Uari noen woz sin 
Tu trsek dha rok-frikwenting hoed 

Widh ai sow tru and kin. 

A litl' seen woz in hiz howm, 

A lafing, fear-head boi ; 
Sow strong ov lim, sow blaidh ov hat, 

Hi meyd it ring widh joi. 

Hiz f adhaz ship woer 61 hiz frendz ; 

Dha laemz hi kold bai neym ; 
And when dhey frolikt in dha fildz, 

Dha chaild wud shear dha geym. 

Sow pisfuli dhear auaz woer spent 
Dhat laif haed skeas a soro' ; 

Dhey tuk dha gud ov evri dey, 
And howpt for moar ta-moro'. 

Boet 6ft 1 soem shaming Eypril mon 

Iz dakn'd in an auar ; 
And blaekist grifs oar 2 joias howmz, 

Alas ! osnsi'n mey lauar. 

A Iternative forms : — l oft. 2 owvar. 



Wilyam Tel. 55 

Not yet on Switsaland haed dond 

Hoer dey ov libati ; 
Dha streynjaz yowk woz on hoer soenz, 

And prest rait hevili. 

Sow ween woz sent in lceklis auar, 

Tu rul in Ostryaz 2 neym ; 
A hoti masn ov saevij mtid, — 

In pomp and pauar hi keym, 

Ween dey, in wontannis ov pauar, 

Hi set hiz ksep on hai : — 
" Bau daun, yi sleyvz," dhi odar raen ; 

" Hti diso'beyz shasl dai ! " 

It chanst dhat Wilyam Tel, dhaet mon, 

Haed left hiz kotij howm, 
And, widh hiz litl' soen in haend, 

Tu iEltof taun hsed kcem. 

For 6ft dha boi haed aid dha spoil 

Hiz fadhar howmwad boar, 
And preyd tu join dha hcenting kru, 

When dhey shud rowm for moar. 

And ofn on soem meri nait, 

When wcendras fits woer towld, 
Hi longd hiz fadhaz bow tu teyk, 

And bi a hcentar bowld. 

Sow todz 2 dha shamwoz honts dhey went ; 

Ween sseng hiz chaildish songz, 
Dhi cedhar brudid monfuli 

Oar 3 U ariz grif s and rongz. 

Tel so dha kraud, dha liftid kaep, 

Dha tairants aenggri fraun, — 
Dha heraldz shautid in hiz iar, 4 

11 Bau daun, yi sleyvz, bau daun ! " 

A 

Alternative for?ns ; — x Ostri'az, Ostri'az. 2 tuw6dz. 3 owvar. 4 yoer. 



56 Biding Lesn'z — Poioitri. 

Stoen Gezlar makt dha pezants min, 

And wocht tu si him fol ; 
Boet nevar pam-tri streytar stud 

Dhaen Tel bifo'ar dhem 61. 

" Mai ni shael bend," hi kamli sed, 

" Tu God, and God alown ; 
Mai laif iz in dhi Ostryanz 1 haend, 

Mai konshans iz mai own." 

" Siz him, yi gadz," dha rular kraid, 
Whail paeshan chowkt hiz breth ; 

" Hi moks mai pauar, hi breyvz mai lod, 
Hi daiz dha treytaz deth ; — 

" Yet weyt. Dha Swis ar maksman tru, 

Sow 61 dha woeld dceth sey : 
Dhaet fear-head stripling hidhar bring ; 

Wi l 2 trai dhear skil ta-dey." 

Had bai a spreding laim tri stud, 
Tu dhis dha ytith woz baund ; 

Dhey pleyst an aepl' on hiz hed — 
Hi lukt in wcendar raund. 

" Dha folt iz main, if folt dhear bi," 

Kraid Tel in seksn'ts waild ; 
" On maenhud let yor venjans fol, 

Boet spear, ow spear mai chaild ! " 

11 Ai wil not ham dha priti boi," 

Sed Gezlar tontingli ; 
" If bloed ov hiz shael steyn dha graund, 

Yoz wil dha moedar bi. 

11 Dro tait yor bow, mai koening maen, 

Yor streytist aero' teyk ; 
For, now, yon aepl' iz yor m&k, 

Yor libati dha steyk." 

Alternative forms : — 1 Ostri'anz, Ostri'anz. 2 wil. 



Wilyam Tel. 57 

A minggl'd noiz ov roth and grif 

Woz hoed amceng dha kraud ; 
Dha men dhey mootad koesiz dip, 

Dha wimin wept alaud. 

Ful fifti peysiz from hiz chaild, 

Hiz kros-bow in hiz haend, 
Widh lip kamprest, and flseshing ai, 

Tel foemli tuk his staend. 

Shuar, ful ancef : ov peyn and wow 

Dhis kraudid oeth haez bin ; 
Beet nevar, sins dha koes bigae'n, 

A saedar sait woz sin. 

Dhen speyk alaud dha gaelant boi, 

Impeyshant ov diley, — 
" Shut streyt and kwik, dhain eym iz shuar ; 

Dhau kaenst not mis ta-dey." 

" Hevn' bles dhi nau," dha perant sed, 

" Dhai kcerij sheymz mai fiar ; 
Msen traempl'z on hiz brcedhar maan, 

Boat God iz evar mar." 

Dha bow woz bent ; dhi aero' went, 

Mz bai an eynjl' gaidid ; 
In pisiz tu, binith dha tri, 

Dhi sepl' fel divaidid. 

" T 2 woz breyvli doen," dha rular sed, 

11 Mai plaitid woed ai kip; 
T woz breyvli doen bai saiar and soen, — 

Gow howm, and fid yor ship." 

" Now thaengks ai giv dhi for dhai bun," 

Dha pezn't kowldli sed ; 
" Tu God alown mai preyz iz dyu, 

And dyuli shael bi peyd. 

A Uernative forms : — 1 ince' f . 2 it. 



58 Biding Lesrtz — Powitri. 

" Yet now, praud msen, dhai feyt woz ntar, 

Haed ai boet mist mai eym ; 
Not oenavenjd mai chaild haed daid, — 

Dhai pating auar dha seym. 

" For si ! a sekand shaft woz hiar, 

If ham mai boi bifel ; 
Nau gow and bles dha hevn'li pauar, 

Mai foest haez sped sow wel." 

God helpt dha rait, God spead dha sin ; 

Hi bringz dha praud tu sheym ; 
Hi gadz dha wik agenst 1 dha strong, — 

Preyz tu Hiz howli Neym ! 

— Bev. J. H. Ghurney. 

MCENGKIZ M.2ENAZ. 

MffiNGKiz, when dhey sit set teybl', 
It aaz fast sez dhey ar eybl' — 
Gobi' for dhear veri laivz — 
Skup oep greyvi widh dhear naivz — 

Put dhear finggaz in dha dish 
If soem nais tit-bit dhey wish — 
Widh dhear naif, or fok, or spun, 
On dha teybP droem a tyun — 

Soemtaimz 2 from ich cedhaz pleyt— ow, 
Shoking ! — pilfar a pateyto', 
Or soem veri temting slais 
Which dhey thingk iz hiking nais. 

Biflekshan. 

Now yoeng ridaz, shuar, ov main 
Evar wud laik moengkiz dain ! 

— Tom Hood. 

Alternative forms : — x ageynst. 2 scemtaimz. 



Dha Domaus. 59 

Dha Song ov dha Str{t Mcengki. 

Dhey thingk when ai m straiking dha shril gita'r 

Widh a slaitli kealis haend, 
Dhat ai hsev fagotn' 1 mai loavd wcenz, far 

Awey in a distant lsend. 

Dhear dwel Misiz Em and mai mcengkilings thri, 

And dhey wcendar whear ai gem, 
Mz dhey sit in dha top ov dha kowko'-ncet tri, 

And fist on dha lceshas yaem. 

Mai mcengkilingz dhey ar grown-oep bai dhis, 

And dhear teylz kwait long moest bi ; 
Dhear mcedhar 6ft 2 givz dhem, ai now, a kis, 

Bikoz 3 dhey ar sow laik mi. 

Long — long mey dhey baund mid 4 dha lofti 5 triz, 

In dha forist shaedo'z kill, 
Nor evar bi fetad widh klowdhz 6 laik dhiz, 

And dans on a thri-legd stul. 

Dha tip ov mai teyl iz dinyu'did ov skin, 

It pruvz hau moech ai fret : 
Boet bikoz ai indoe'lj in a pasing grin 

Dhey fsensi dhat ai faget. 7 

— Tom Hood. 

Dha Domaus. 

Dha litl' domaus iz toni red, 

Hi meyks agenst wintar a nais snceg bed ; 

Hi meyks hiz bed in a mosi bsengk, 

Whear dha plants in dha soemar grow tol and raengk. 

Awey from dha deylait, far oendagraund, 

Hiz slip thru dha wintar iz kwaiat and saund ; 

And when 61 aboev him it friziz and snowz, 

Alternative forms : — x fog6tn'. 2 oft. 3 bik6'z. 4 amid. 
5 lofti. 6 klowz. 7 fog^t. 



60 Riding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

Whot iz it tu him ? for hi not ov it nowz. 

And til dha kowld taim ov dha wintar iz gon, 1 

Dha litl' domaus kips sliping on. 

Boat aet last, in dha fresh brizi deyz ov dha spring, 

When dha grin livz boed, and dha meri boedz sing, 

And dha dred ov dha wintar iz owvar and past, 

Dhen dha litl' domaus pips aut aet last — 

Aut ov hiz snoeg kwaiat boero' hi wendz, 

And luks 61 abaut for hiz neybaz and frendz ; 

Dhen hi sez, aez hi sits aet dha fut ov a lach, 

" T 2 iz a byutifi" 3 dey for dha foest ov Mach, 

Dha vaialit iz bluming, dha blu skai iz kliar ; 

Dha lak iz cepspringing, hiz kaerl' ai hiar ; 

And in dha grin fildz ar dha laem and dha fowl ; 

Ai m 4 glaed ai m 4 not sliping, nor daun in mai howl." 

Dhen awey hi roenz, in hiz meri mud, 

Owvar dha fildz, and intu dha wud, 

Tu faind eni greyn dhear mey chans tu bi, 

Or eni smol beri dhat haengz on dha tri. 

Sow from oeli moning til leyt aet nait, 

Haez dha puar litl' krichar its own dilait ; 

Luking daun tu dhi oeth, and oep tu dha skai, 

Thingking, " Whot a haepi domaus aem ai ! " 

— Mary Hoivitt. 

Dha Ge&s-hopae and dha Keikit. 

Dha powitri ov oeth iz nevar ded : 

When 61 dha boedz ar feynt widh dha hot soen, 
And haid in killing triz, a vois wil roen 

From hej tu hej abaut dha nyti-mown mid ; 

Dhaet iz dha gras-hopar — hi teyks dha lid 
In soemar loekshari, — hi haez nevar doen 
Widh hiz dilaits, for when taiad aut widh foen, 

Alternative forms : — 1 g6n. 2 it. 3 bylitiful. 4 aem. 



Owd tu dha Kuku. 61 

Hi rests aet iz bini'th soem plezn't wid. 
Dha powitri ov oeth iz sising nevar : 

On a lown wintar ivning, when dha frost 
Haez rot a sailans, from dha stowv dhear shrilz 
Dha krikits song, in womth inkri'sing evar, 

And simz tu woan, in drauzinis haf lost, 
Dha gras-hopar amoeng soem grasi hilz. 

— Keats. 

Owd tu dha Kuku. 

He yd, byutyas streynjar ov dha growv ! 

Dhau mesinjar ov Spring ! 
Nau hevn' ripe'az dhai ruaral sit, 

And wudz dhai welkam sing. 

Whot taim dha deyzi deks dha grin, 

Dhai soetin vois wi hiar ; 
Hsest dhau a star tu gaid dhai path, 

Or mak dha rowling yiar ? 

Dilaitful l vizitant ! widh dhi 

Ai heyl dha taim ov flauaz, 
And hiar dha saund ov myuzik swit 

From boedz amoeng dha bauaz. 

Dha skulboi, wondring 2 thru dha wud 

Tu pul dha primrowz gey, 
Stats, dha nyu vois ov Spring tu hiar, 

And imiteyts dhai ley. 

Whot taim dha pi puts on dha blum 

Dhau flaist dhai vowkal veyl 
An senyual gest in oedhar laendz 

Anoedhar Spring tu heyl. 

Alternative forms : — x dilaitfl'. 2 woendaring. 



62 Biding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

Swit boed ! dhai bauar iz evar grin, 
Dhai skai iz evar kliar ; 

Dhau haest now soro' in dhai song, 
Now Wintar in dhai yiar ! 

Ow kud ai flai, ai d 1 flai widh dhi ! 

Wi d meyk, widh joiful 2 wing, 
Auar aenyual vizit oar 3 dha glowb, 

Kampaenyanz ov dha Spring. 



— John Logan. 



Dha Milab ov Di. 

Dh^ar dwelt a milar, heyl and bowld, 

Bisaid dha rivar Di ; 
Hi woekt and saeng from mon til nait, 

Now lak moar blaith dhaen hi ; 
And dhis dha boedn' ov hiz song 

For evar yust tu bi : 
"Ai envi nowbadi, now, not ai, 

And nowbadi en viz mi." 

t( Dhau at 4 rong, mai frend," sed gud King Hael — 

" Mz rong aez rong kaen bi — 
For kud mai hat bi lait aez dhain, 

Ai d 5 glaedli cheynj widh dhi ; 
And tel mi nau, whot meyks dhi sing 

Widh vois sow laud and fri, 
Whail ai aem saed, dhow ai m 6 dha king, 

Bisaid dha rivar Di?" 

Dha milar smaild and doft hiz kaep : 

" Ai oen mai bred," kwowth hi ; 
" Ai lcev mi 7 waif, ai loev mi frend, 

Ai lcev mi childran thri ; 

Alternative forms : — 1 wud. 2 joifl'. 3 owvar. 4 it. 

6 wud. 6 sem, am. 7 mai. 



Woen bai Wcen. 63 



Ai ow now peni ai kaenot pey ; 

Ai thaengk dha rivar Di, 
Dhat toenz dha mil dhat graindz dha kon 

Dhat fidz mai beybz and mi." 

' Gud frend," sed Hael, and said dha whail, 

" Feawel and haepi bi ; 
Boat sey now moar, if dhau dst 1 bi tru, 

Dhat now wcen enviz dhi : 
Dhai mtli kaep iz woeth mai kraun, 

Dhai mil, mai kingdamz fi ; 
Soech men aez dhau ar Ingglandz bowst, 

Ow milar ov dha Di ! " 



WCEN BAI WffiN. 

Wcen bai woen dha saendz ar flowing, 
Wosn bai woen dha mowmants fol ; 

Soam ar koaming, soem ar gowing ; 
Du not straiv tu grasp dhem 61. 

Wcen bai wcen dhai dyutiz weyt dhi, 
Let dhai howl strength gow tu ich, 

Let now fydchar drimz ileyt dhi, 

Loen dhau foest whot dhiz kaen tich. 

Wcen bai woen (brait gifts from Hevn') 

Joiz ar sent dhi hiar bilow ; 
Teyk dhem redili when givn', 

Redi bi tu let dhem gow. 

Woen bai woen dhai grifs shael mit dhi, 
Du not fiar an amid 2 bsend ; 

Woen wil feyd aez oedhaz grit dhi, 
Shaedo'z pasing thru dha laend. 

Alternative forms : — l wudst. 2 amd. 



— Mackay. 



64 Riding Lesn'z — Poioitri. 

Du not luk set laifs long soro' ; 

Si hau smol ich mowmants peyn ; 
God wil help dhi for ta-moro', 

Sow ich dey bigin ageyn. 

Evri auar dhat flits sow slowli, 

Haez its task tu du 6r bear ; 
Lyuminas dha kraun, and howli, 

When ich jem iz set widh kear. 

Du not linggar widh rigreting, 

Or for pasing auaz dispond ; 
Nor, dha deyli toil fogeting, 1 

Luk tu igali biyond. 

Auaz ar gowldn' lingks, Godz towkn', 
Kiching Hevn' ; boat woen bai woen, 

Teyk dhem, lest dha cheyn bi browkn' 
fiar dha pilgrimij bi doen. 

— Adelaide Proctor. 

Lokinva'r. 

Leydi Heranz Song. 

Ow, yoeng Lokinva'r iz koem aut ov dha west, 
Thru 61 dha waid Bodar hiz stid woz dha best, 
And, seyv hiz gud brod-sod, hi wepanz haed noen ; 
Hi rowd 61 oena/md, and hi rowd 61 alown. 
Sow feythful in loev, and sow dontlis in wor, 
Dhear nevar woz nait laik dha yoeng Lokinva'r. 

Hi steyd not for breyk, and hi stopt not for stown, 

Hi swaem dhi Esk rivar whear fod dhear woz noen ; 

Boet, ear hi alaitid set Nedhabi geyt, 

Dha braid haed kansentid, dha gaelant keym leyt, 

For a laegad in loev, and a daestad in wor, 

Woz tu wed dha fear Elin ov breyv Lokinva'r. 

Alternative forms : — l fagoting. 



Lohinvd'r. 65 

Sow bowldli hi entad dha Nedhabi hoi 

Amoeng braidzman and kinzman, and broedhaz and 61 : 

Dhen spowk dha braidz fadhar, hiz haend on hiz sod 

(For dha puar kreyvn' braidgrum sed never a woed), 

"Ow, kcem yi in pis hiar, or koem yi in wor, 

Or tu dans aet auar braidl', yceng Lod Lokinva/r? " 

" Ai long wud yor dotar, mai syut yu dinaid ; — 
Loav swelz laik dha Solwey, boat ebz laik its taid — 
And nau ai aem koem, widh dhis lost loav ov main, 
Tu lid boat ween mezhar, dringk woen koep ov wain. 
Dhear ar meydn'z in Skotland moar loevli bai far, 
Dhat wud glaedli bi braid tu dha yoeng Lokinva'r." 

Dha braid kist dha goblit ; dha nait tuk it cep, 
Hi kwaft of dha wain, and hi thru daun dha koep, 
Shi lukt daun tu bloesh, and shi lukt oep tu sai, 
Widh a smail on hoer lips and a tiar in hoer ai. 
Hi tuk hoer soft 1 haend, ear hoer moedhar kud bar, — 
" Now tred wi a mezhar ! " sed yoeng Lokinva'r. 

Sow steytli hiz fom, and sow loevli hoer feys, 

Dhat nevar a hoi soech a gaelyad did greys ; 

Whail hoer moedhar did fret, and hoer fadhar did fyum, 

And dha braidgrum stud daenggling hiz bonit and plum ; 

And dha braid-meydn'z whispad, " T woer betar bai far 

Tu haev maecht auar fear koezn' widh yoeng Lokinva'r." 

Woen toech tu hoer haend, and woen weed in hoer iar, 2 

When dhey richt dha hol-doar, and dha chajar stud niar ; 

Sow lait tu dha kruwp dha fear leydi hi swoeng, 

Sow lait tu dha saedl' bifo'ar hoer hi sprceng ! 

" Shi iz woen ! wi ar gon, 3 owvar baengk, bush, and skoar ; 

Dhey l 4 haev flit stidz dhat folo' ; " kwowth yoeng Lokinva'r. 

Dhear woz maunting moeng 5 Grimz ov dha Nedhabi klaen ; 
Fostaz, Feniks and Moezgreyvz, dhey rowd and dhey raen : 

Alternative forms : — x soft. 2 yoer. 3 gon. 4 wil. 5 amceng. 



66 Biding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

Dhear woz reysing, and cheysing on Kaeno'bi Li, 
Boet dha lost braid ov Nedhabi near 1 did dhey si. 
Sow dering in loev, and sow dontlis in wor, 
Heev yi ear 2 hoed ov gselant laik yoeng Lokinva/r ? 

—Scott. 

A 

Aftar Blenim. 

It waz 3 a soemar ivning ; 

Owld Kaespaz woek waz dcen, 
And hi bifo'ar hiz kotij doar 

Waz siting in dha seen ; 
And bai him spotid on dha grin 
Hiz litl' grsendchaild Wilami'n. 

Shi so hoer brcedhar Pitakin 

Rowl scemthing laj and raund, 
Which hi bisaid dha rivyulet 

In pleying dhear hsed faund ; 
Hi keym tu ask whot hi haed faund 

Dhat woz sew laj and smudh and raund. 

Owld Ksespar tuk it from dha boi, 

Hu stud ikspektant bai ; 
And dhen dhi owld maen shuk hiz hed, 

And widh a naechral 4 sai, 
" T iz sosm ptiar felo'z skcel," sed hi, 
" Hu fel in dha greyt viktari. 5 

" Ai faind dhem in dha gadn', 

For dhear z meni hiar abaut ; 
And ofn when ai gow tu plau 

Dha plaushear toenz dhem aut. 
For meni thauzand men," sed hi, 
" Woer sleyn in dhaet greyt viktari." 

Alternative forms : — l nevar. 2 evar. 3 woz. 

4 nsecharal. 5 viktri. 



Aftar Blenim. 67 



" Nau tel oes whot t waz 61 abaut," 

Yoeng Pitakin hi kraiz ; 
And litl' Wilami'n luks oep 

Widh woendar-weyting aiz ; 
" Nau tel oes 61 abaut dha wor, 
And whot dhey fot ich oedhar for ? " 

" It waz dhi Ingglish," Ksespar kraid, 
" Hti put dha French 1 tu raut ; 

Boet whot dhey fot ich oedhar for 
Ai kud not wel meyk aut. 

Boet evribodi sed," kwowth hi, 

" Dhat t woz a feymas viktari. 

" Mai fadhar livd set Blenim dhen, 

Yon litl" strim had bai ; 
Dhey boent hiz dweling tu dha graund, 

And hi waz fost tu flai : 
Sow widh hiz waif and chaild hi fled, 
Nor heed hi whear tu rest hiz hed. 

" Widh faiar and sod dha koentri raund 

Waz weystid far and waid, 
And meni a chailding mcedhar dhen 

And nytibon beybi daid : 
Boet thingz laik dhaet, yu now, moest bi 
iEt evri feymas viktari. 

" Dhey sey it woz a shoking sait 

Aftar dha fild waz woen ; 
For meni thauzand bodiz hiar 

Ley roting in dha soen : 
Boet thingz laik dhaet, yu now, moest bi 
Aftar a feymas viktari. 

Alternative form : — 1 Frensh. 



68 Biding Lesn'z — Powitri. 

" Greyt preyz dha Dyiik ov Molbra l woen 

And auar gud Prins Yuji'n ; " 
— " Whai t woz a veri wikid thing ! " 

Sed litl' Wilami'n ; 
" Ney . . . ney . . . mai litl' goel," kwowth hi, 
"It waz a feymas viktari." 

" And evribodi preyzd dha Dyiik 

Hu dhis greyt fait did win." 
— " Boet whot gud keym of it set last ? " 

Kwowth litl* Pitakin : — 
" Whai dhaet ai kaBnot tel," sed hi, 
" Boat t woz a feymas viktari." 

— B. Southey. 

SCEM MOEMAR. 

Scem moemar, when dhear skai iz kliar 

And howlh brait tu vyu, 
If woen smol spek ov dak apiar 

In dhear greyt hevn' ov blu. 
And soem widh thaengkful loev ar fild 

If boet ween strik ov lait, 
Woen rey ov Godz gud moesi gild 

Dha daknis ov dhear nait. 

In paelasiz ar hats dhat ask, 

In diskantent and praid, 
Whai laif iz seech a driari task, 

And 61 gud thingz dinaid. 
And hats in puarist hcets admaiar 

Hau Loev haez in dhear eyd 
(Loev dhat not evar simz tu taiar) 

Seech rich pro'vizhan meyd. 

— Archbishop Trench. 

Alternative form : — x Molbara. 



EXEECISES. ] 



Exercise I. 



Silent letters to be left out, and i to be written instead of y 
or ie at the end of words. 
Instead of : — 



well 


begged 


deck 


sense 


Jessie 


ill 


filled 


kick 


twelve 


Minnie 


doll 


robbed 


rock 


give 


pussy 


pull 


pulled 


flock 


solve 


Johnnie 


mess 


very 


head 


wren 


merrily 


miss 


silly 


bread 


wrist 


steadily 


dross 


folly 


deaf 


knit 


possibly 


puss 


fully 


breast 


knob 


impossibility 


We write : — 








wel 


begd 


dek 


sens 


Jesi 


il 


fild 


kik 


twelv 


Mini 


dol 


robd 


rok 


giv 


pusi 


pul 


puld 


flok 


solv 


Joni 


mes 


veri 


hed 


ren 


merili 


mis 


sili 


bred 


rist 


stedili 


dros 


foli 


def 


nit 


posibli 


pus 


fuli 


brest 


nob 


imposibiliti 



Write in the same manner : — 

Bell, egg, inn, stiff, odd, full, digged, lived, lead, dead, pity, 
merry, sorry, Willy, ready, sense, stick, block, horrid, plenty, 
plentifully. 

1 See Introduction to Phonetics, § 157. 
(69) 



70 




Exercises 












Exercise II. 








On words from Beading Lesson I. 




atend 


paet 


pet 


pit 


pot 


put 


a 


haed 


wel 


it 


foks 


intu 


an 


set 


get 


hiz 


woz 


gud 


and 


kaenot 


plenti 


iz 


ov 


wud 


apon 


aez 


frend 


in 




lukt 


agen 


haev 


frendz 
eni 


nimbli 
if 







Learn to write se all in one stroke. 

Observe the different sound of ae in pat and a in attend, 
America, villa. 

1. What symbols do we generally use in the above words 
for a, ae, e, i, o, u ? 

2. Write phonetically, that is, according to sound : — 
John had a good dog. Florrie looked at it. A bag full of 

wool. A woolly lamb. His foot is wet. His hand is full. Sam 
left his booh. Jem took it. Willy is not steady. Give him ten 
minutes. 







EXEECISE III. 








On 


words from 


Beading 


Lesson I. 




t 


n 


Y 


z 


k 


ks 


lukt 


kaenot 


OV 


aez 


kaenot 


foks 


compare 


plenti 




hiz 


compare 


compare 


kukt 


eni 




iz 


kaep 


waeks 


dipt 


nimbli 




woz 


kot 


veks 


stopt 


intu 




frendz 


kuk 


miks 



1. What symbols do you generally use in the above words 
for t, n, y, z, ks ? 

Write according to sound : — 

Ann is a good cook. Henry has a pretty box. Ten pens. 



Exercises. 



71 



Twenty pence. Fifty books. Sixty beds. Many cocks and 
hens. A box of bricks. Willy knocked. John helped Tom. 
Minnie has bread and eggs. Ned spells well. Kitty has many 
friends. 







Exercise IV. 










On words from 


Beading 


Lesson II. 




a 


H 


th 


dh 




zh 


ch 


dha 


longgar 


thingk 


dhi 




trezhar 


which 


dhat 


thingk 


woeth 


dha 




compare 


moech 


compare 


compare 


compare dhis 




plezhar 


compare 


a 


singar 


thin 


dhat 




trezhar 


dich 


an 


finggar 


thik 


compare 


vizhan 


fech 


and 


hoenggri 


thisl' 


dhen 




dilyuzhan 


chin 


dhset 


dongki 


pith 


widh 




rtizh 


chest 



Observe that the endings of longgar and trezhar sound the 
same as those of graemar, kolar, selar, dolar, though we are 
accustomed to write long-er, treas-ure, gramm-ar, coll-ar, cell-ar y 
doll-ar. 

Write phonetically: — 

The bell was ringing. Annie was thinking. The lamb is 
drinking. Measure this bit of wood. A mossy bank. A hotch- 
potch. Match that red wool. Put in a stitch. Drink the milk. 
Fanny is at leisure. Ned has a treasure. John is very angry. 
Tom is angling. 

Exercise V. 
On words from Beading Lessons III. and IV. 



ey 


1 


ow 


u 


03 


u 


wey 


mi 


show 


hu 


cep 


krukid 


dhey 


si 


sow 


du 


seem 


tu (to) 


streyt 


pipl' 


dhowz 


fud 


boat 


compare 


teyking 


prisept 


ownli 
owld 


juil 


woen 


tu (too) 
tu (two) 



72 Exercises. 

Note that cb should be written without lifting the pen. 

1. Write in ordinary spelling two fresh examples of each of 
the sounds cb, ey, i, ow, u. 

2. Write phonetically : — 

Haste makes waste. No pains, no gains. Ill weeds grow 
apace. Extremes meet. Charity begins at home. Great is 
the truth, and -it shall prevail. None of these things moved 
him. The tongue is not steel, but it cuts. Treasures {ending 
-az) of ivickedness profit nothing. 

EXEBCISE VI. 

On words from Beading Lesson V. 
a oe 6 



as 


woer 


toking 


far 


goelz 


wokt 


lafing 


ritoening. 


yor 


fadhar 


oenist 


nor 


compare 


compare 


compare 


ar 


hoer 


A 

or 


star 


soer 


for 


stav 


woed 


stom 


kat 


boen 


hos 



Remember to write final r though it is sometimes silent. 
We hear it in far off, father is at home. 

Write phonetically : — 

Alms are the salt of riches. Truth may be blamed but can't 
be shamed. He that sleepeth in harvest is a son that causeth 
shame. A soft answer turneth away wrath. All her paths are 
peace. Forewarned, forearmed, 



Exercises. 

Exercise VII. 
On words from Beading Lesson VI. 



73 



ai 


an 


01 


yu 


ai 


alauing 


distr6id 


nyu 


bai 


daun 


compare 


rifyu'z 


taim 


gaun 


point 


compare 


mai 


compare 


joint 


yft 


straiv 


nau 


boi 


regyular 


maind 


bau 


joi 


vselyu 



The symbol for ou in house, namely au, is the same that is 
used for this sound in German, so we spell the English words 
house, mouse, exactly like German Haus, Maus. 
Observe that — 

ai is like a + i oi is like 6 + i 

au „ a + u yu „ y + u 

Write phonetically : — 

A stitch in time saves nine. If thou do ill, the joy fades, 
not the pains ; if well, the pain doth fade, the joy remains. The 
pan says to the pot, " Keep off, or you'll smutch me." Murder 
will out. Who knows nothing, doubts nothing. One foe is too 
many, and a hundred friends too few. No cross, no crown. 





Exercise VIII 




On words from Beading Lesson VIII. 


ar 


a 


a 


klsemar 


cedhaz 


pitishand 


betar 


libati 


ko'mowshan 


odar 


venchad 


kandishan 


terar 


compare 


ameyzmant 


compare 


odaz 


poenishmant 


selar 


teraz 


distans 


kolar 


selaz 


sekand 


vila 


kolaz 


prezantli 


Bela 


vilaz 





74 Exercises. 

Observe how, when z is added, r disappears. 
Show that a, e, o or ou may stand for the sound a in 
ordinary spelling. 

Write phonetically : — 

Out of debt, out of danger. A 'prophet has no honour in his 
own country. Physician heal thyself. The receiver's as bad as 
the thief. A rolling stone gathers no moss. Thou shalt sooner 
detect an ant moving in the dark night on the black earth, than 
all the motions of pride in thine heart. 



EXEECISE IX. 




On Words from Beading Lesson VIII. 




P m J 


n' o' 


0' 


mosl compare 


kcezn' pro'kytiar 


compare 


poepl' bseptizm' 


scedn' compare 


soro' 


compare sizm' 


owpn' pro'tekt 


fob' 


litr ksezm' 


compare molest 


folo'z 


bsebl'd 


bcetn' bilo' 


folo'd 


boebl'z 


ridn' bilo'z 


folo'ing 




ritn' bilow 


folo'ar 



Write phonetically : — 

Man proposes, God disposes. Coals to Newcastle. Misfor- 
tunes never come single. Heaven and earth fight in vain against 
a dunce. The river past and God forgotten. When the tale of 
bricks is doubled, Moses comes. Is Saul also among the 
prophets ? 

Exercise X. 

On Words from Beading Lesson VIII. 

ea ia 6a ua 

dhear hiar doar ptiar 

whear fiar stoar compare 





Exercises. 




ea 


ia 


da 


ua 


fear {fare) 


fiad 


bifo'ar 


btiar 


kear 


compare 


compare 


dtiar 


keafuli 


apiar 


doz 


muar 


compare 


apiaz 


stoz 


mtiaz 


feaz 


apiad 


stod 


muad 


fead 


ashuar 


roar 


ashuar 


keaz 


ashuaz 


roz 


ashuaz 


kead 


ashuad 


rod 


ashuad 



75 



The following words give the key to these sounds : — 

bear bier boar boor. 

Observe how words ending in r lose the r when a consonant 
is added, and words ending in oar lose a also. 

1. Show in ordinary spelling two or more ways of repre- 
senting each of the sounds ear, iar, oar, uar. 

2. Write phonetically : — 

More haste, worse speed. A scalded dog fears cold water. 
Ill doers are ill deemers. There's many a slip 'tivixt the cup 
and the lip. The fear of man bring eth a snare. A poor man 
is better than a fool. Before honour is humility. 





Exeecise XI. 




On words 


from Beading 


Lessons VIII and IX. 


aia 


aua 


yua 


Doubled letters, 


haiar 


owvapauad 


indyu'ar 


deyntiist 


haiad 


compare 


pro'kyuar 


middey 


compare 


auar 


sikyuariti 


compare 


faiar 


sauar 


compare 


pritiist 


faiaz 


pauar 


pyuar 


kseriing 


faiad 


pauaz 


indyuaz 


hoeriing 


taiar 


flauar 


indyu'ad 


stcediing 


taiaz 


flauaz 


pro'kyuar 


heddres 


taiad 


flauad 


pro'kyuad 


bukkeys 



76 Exercises. 

Observe that r forms triphthongs. 

Also that doubled letters must be used in those few cases 
where the sounds are doubled. 

Write phonetically : — 

The grapes are sour. Knowledge is power. A burnt child 
fears the fire. It is naught, it is naught, saith the buyer, but 
when he is gone his way, then he boasteth. They were marry- 
ing and giving in marriage. To the pure all things are pure. 
We count them blessed which endure. 

Exercise XII. 

e and 6 are not always turned into diphthongs by r follow- 
ing. Examples : — 

kear kering keaz 

bear bering beaz 

stoar storing stod 

roar roring rod 

Note that e occurs only before r and a vowel. But 6 occurs 
also when r disappears before a consonant. 

Examples of e : — 

eri feri veri Sera verid 

heri deri Meri perant veriing 

Notice the appearance of words with ai or oi followed by i. 
Examples : — 

traiing baling dikoiing distroiing 

Write phonetically : — 

A hoary old man. A daring robbery. The door was ajar. 
Wood is porous. Clara will not return. Mary is enjoying her 
ride. Mr. Jones is employing a gardener. Her motives are 
not apparent. Morocco wears well. Sarah is lying down. 
Louisa is untying a knot. They are restoring the church. 



Exercises. 77 

EXEECISE XIII. 

On Accent. 

In English most words are accented on the first syllable. 
But words ending in shan, zhan, shal or iti are always ac- 
cented on the syllable preceding these terminations. 

And the vowels a and o' are never accented ; so if the 
vowel of the first syllable is a or o', and the word does not end 
in shan, zhan, shal or iti, we accent the second syllable. 

Examples : — 



-shan, -zhan 

extension 

civilization 

mathematician 

intrusion 

indecision 



-shal, -iti 



a- 


O'- 


sagacious 


protect 


away 


propose 


account 


oblige 


lament 


produce 


arrival 


domain 



judicial 

initial 

inability 

majority 

humanity 

Write out the following words phonetically, marking the 
accent, and arranging them in three classes — (1) those whose 
accent is determined by the ending, (2) those whose accent is 
determined by the vowel of the first syllable, and (3) those 
which are irregular, not coming under the above rules : — 



protect 


parental 


continue 


delusion 


advise 


obedient 


exhibit 


abominable 


condescend 


molest 


exhibition 


impossibility 


division 


observation 


prejudicial 


intimidate 


return 


determine 


intelligent 


dislike 


severity 


expansion 


insensibility 


conceal 



APPENDICES. 

I. 

SPECIMENS OE EEENCH. 

L AiVTBOPOFAIJ. 

Deu pti garsow d la vil, Eicha:r e Gusta:v, s egare:r euw 
jou:r dawz un epe:s fore, Awfew i trouve:r un petit oberj, 6 
milyeu d la fore, e iz i awtre:r pour i pase la nwi. 

A minwi, iz awtawdi:r parle daw la chawb vwazin. Gusta:v, 
ki n dorme pa e ky ete tre kuryeu, r6veya sow fre:r. Iz ale:r 
se met pre d la port, prete:r 1 ore:y e a7Jta7^di:r 1 oberjist ki 
dize a sa fam : " Ma che:r, demew matew tu metra la grawd 
chodye:r su 1 feti, j ve twe no deu pti dro:l de la vil." 

A se mo, le povz awfawpawse:r mouri:r de freyeu:r. Eicha:r, 
ky 6te tre poltrow, di : " Nou som perdu ! St om la et euwn 
awtropofaij ! Iy a dez antropofa:j, j 1 e" lu daw mow Eobewsow." 

Le pti Gusta:v, ky ete pa tutafe osi peureu, di : "I fo nou 
sove par la fne:t'r. Vyew. I se lva tou dousmaw, ouvri la 
fne:tr e" sota aw ba; s 6te pa tre dawjreti, kar la chaw:br £tet 6 
r^tchose : Eicha:r sota apre. 

Me la port de la kou:r ete ferme. Ne pouvaw pa sorti:r, i 
cherche:r partou euw rfu:j, awfew i trouveir un etab'l. Gusta:v 
ouvri la port ; deu. gro:s be:t nwa:r sorti:r aw gronaw, e s 
elawse:r daw la kou:r ; le deu pti garsow, trawblaw kom de feu:y, 
y awtre:r a leur plas e i pase:r le restaw d la nwi. 

Le matew, 1 oberjist sorti daw la kou:r, euw gra7£ kouto a la 
mew. II ala drwa a 1 etabl e ouvri la port aw dizaw : " Alow, me 
pti dro:l, sorte" : vot dernyer eu:r e vwu." 

(79) 



80 Appendices. 

L6* deuz anfan pouse:r de kri lamantabl 6 1 pri&:r a jnou de 
n pa le tae\ 

L oberjist, tout etone, leur di : " Keske vou fet don isi ? keske 
vou m konte? Mwa, vou twe? £ske vou m pren6 pour eun 
ma?zjeu:r d om ? " 

11 M& wi, msjeu," di Eicha:r, " vouz ave di a vot fam, set nni : 
11 ' demen j ture le deu pti dro:l de la vil.' " 

L oberjist parti d eun grant ekla d ri:r 6 di : " Ch parle d me 
deu kochorz : j le*z apel me pti dro:l de la vil, paske j 16z e 
acute" a la vil. — Alow, vn6 vit dejeune e vou debarbouye : 
answit j vou mozztrere 1 chemen pour rantre ch6 vo paran. Un 
6t fwa vou n 6koutre plu 6 port." 

IA De£t Palmye\ 

Eun jou:r euzz Kalif pase 1 Ion d un ko:t arid ki s apel 
Cholwan ; i s i trouva deu palmye, seulz orneman de s d£ze:r. 
II ave swaf, e ordona k 1 on koupa 1 eun de palmye^ do?z la se:v 
dvet et:r eun breuva:j delisyeu. Lorske 1 arbre fut abatu, 1 onn 
apersu 1 enskripsyon szdvan:t : " Swaye" beni, 6 vou le deu 
palmye d Cholnan, ki ave done vo frni e pre:t£ votr on:br 
6 po:vre pasa?z fatige . . . e maleu:r a selzzi ki vouz ora 
separe" ! " Le kalif eyaw lu se mo s santi malad e n put ale plu 
lw£n. — Ensi peri 1 pnisan ki detrzzi tou pour satisfe:r un anvi. 

Jerair de Nerval (Gerard de Nerval). 

La Mezo.v ki Maech. 

Charnase^ av£t un tre lon:g avnu dvan sa mezon awn Anjou ; 
dan set avnu bel e parfet et& plants un mezon d peizan e son 
pti jarden ki s i ete trouve lorsk el fu bati. Jame Charnase 
ni son pe:r n ave pu redzd.-r se peizan a la leur vanrd'r, kelk 
avanta:j k il lzzi ann us ofe:r ; e s et un opinya:trete don 
kantite d proprietor se pik, pour fe:r anraje de jan a la 
konvnanrs & kelke fwa a la n^sesite dekel i son. Charnase, 
ne sachazz plu k i fe:r, ave le:se sla dpzd lontan, sanz an plu 
parle. Anfen, fatige t s&t chomye:r ki \ui bouche la vu e lni 



Appendices. 81 

ote ton 1 agremaw t sown avnu, il imajina euw tou:r de pas 
pars. 

Le peiza?j ki i dmeurre, e a ki el apartene, ete tayeu:r de 
sow metye, kawt i trouve a 1 egzerse ; e il ete che lwi ton seul, 
saw fam ni a?zfa?z. Charnase 1 awvwa cherche, lwi di k il e 
dma7ide a la kou:r pour eu?zn awplwa d kowsekaw:s, k il e 
prese d s i raw:d'r, me k i fad fo un livre. I fo^ marche 6 
kowtaw ; me Charnase stipul kin veu pwen s fye a se dele, 
e ke, mwayena?i kekchorz de plus, i n veu pwew k i sort de 
che lui k sa livre n swa f et ; e k il le kouchra, le nourira e 1 
peyra avaw de 1 ra7^vwaye. Le tayeu:r s i akord e s me a 
travaye. 

Pawdaw k il et okupe, Charnase fe pra?z:d'r avek la der- 
nyerr egzaktitud le pla?i e la dimawsyo7£ t sa mezow e t sow 
jardew, de pyes de 1 ewteryeurr, jusk a la pozisyo?z dez usta?^sil 
e de pti meub'l, fe demow:te la mezow, e a7iporte tou s ki y 
ete, rmo7z:t la mezow tel k el ete, 6 just, dedaw e deho:r, a kat 
porte d mouske, a kote t so?zn avnu ; replas tou le meubl e 
usta?isil da?i la merm pozisyow da??, lakel ow lez ave trouve, e 
retabli 1 peti jardew d mean ; aw mem ta?z, fet aplani:r e netwaye 
1 a?z-drwa d 1 avnu ou el ete, aw sort k i n i paru pa. Tou sla 
fut egzekute a7ikor plu to k la livre fet, e spa?zdaw 1 tayeurr 
dousmaw garde a vu, d peu:r de kelk e?idiskresyow. — Anien la 
bzoS achve d part e d 6:t'r, Charnase amu:z sown om jusk a la 
nwi byen nwarr, le pery e 1 rawvwa kowta?z. Le via ki awfil 1 
avnu. Byento i la trouv lo?z-:g ; apre, i va 6z arbr enaw trouv 
plu ; i s aperswa k il a parse 1 bou, e rvjen a lewstaw cherche 
lez arb'r ; i le sui a 1 estirn, pzd krwa:z e n trouv pa sa mezow ; 
i n ko?ipraw pwew st avawtu:r. La nwi s pars da?z st egzersis ; 
le jourr ari:v, e dvyew byewto ase klerr pour avize sa mezon. 
I n vwa ijen', i s frot lez yeu; i cherch d 6:tz obje pour 
dekouvrirr si s e la fo:t de sa vu. Anien, i krwa ke 1 dya:ble 
s aw merl e k il a a?zporte sa mezow. 

A fors d ale, de vni:r, e d porte sa vu d tou kote, il aperswa, 
a un ase gra?i:d distaw:s de 1 avnu, un mezow ki rsa7i:bl a la 

6 



82 Appendices. 

syen kom deu gout do. In peu krwa:r ke sla swa ; me la 
kuryozite 1 fet ale ou el e, e ou i n a jame vu d mezow. Pluz 
il aproch, pluz i rkone k s 6 la syen. Pour s asurre myeu de 
s ki lui tourn la te:t, i prezawrt sa kle ; el ourv'r, il aw:tr, 
i rtrou:v tou s k il y ave le:se, e presizemaw daw la mem 
plas. II e pre a aw pa:me, e dmeu:r kowvewku k s et euw 
tou:r de sorsye. La journe n fu pa hyenn avawse, k la ri:ze 
du cha:to e du vila:j 1 ewstrwi:zi d la verite du sortile:j, e 1 mit 
an fu:ri. I veu plede, i veu dmaw:de justis a 1 ewtawdaw, e 
partou ow s aw mok. Le rwa 1 su, ki aw rit osi, e Charnase u 
sown avnu lib'r. Si i n ave jame fe pi, il ore kowserve sa 
reputasyow e sa liberte. — Sen Simon (Saint Simon). 1 

1 Msieu d Charnase flit arete e" mi aw pri:zcm, aku:z£, di Sew Simon, 
de b6kou d mechant cho:z, surtou d fo:s mone. 



Appendices. 83 

II. 

SPECIMENS OF GEEMAN. 

Dur9 di:ze ho:le Gase mus 'ar komen ; 
'As fii:rt kain 'andrer Ve:9 1 nach Kiisnaxt — hi:r 
Fola/nd i9S — di: Gele:jenhait 2 'ist giinstig. 
Dort dar Holiindershtraux farbn^t 3 mi9 'i:m ; 
Fon dort harap kan 'i:n main Pfail 'arlangen ; 
Das Ve:jes 4 'Ange ve:ret dan Farfoljern. 5 
Max daine Ea^nung mit dam Himel, Fo:xt ! 6 
Fort must du:, — daine 'U:r 'ist 'apgelaufen. 

'I9 le:pte shtil 'unt harmlo:s — das Geshos 
Va:r 'auf das Valdes Ti:re nu:r geri9tet, 
Maine Gedangken va:ren rain fon Mort — 
Du: hast 'aus mainem Fri:den mi9 haraus 
Geshrakt ; 'in ga:rent Draxengift hast du: 
Di: Mil9 dar fromen Dangk'a:rt mi:r farvandelt ; 
Tsum 'Ungehoiren hast du: mi9 gevo:nt — 
Ve:r zi9 das Kindes Haupt tsum Tsi:le zatste, 
De:r kan 'auch trafen 'in das Harts das Faints. 

Auf di:zer Bangk fon Shtain vil 'i§ mi9 zatsen, 
Dam Vanderer tsur kurtsen Ru: beraitet — 
Dan hi:r 'ist kaine Haima:t — je:der traipt 
ZiG 'an dam 'andern rash 'unt framt fo:rii':ber, 
'Unt fra:^et 7 ni9t nax zainem Shmarts — hi:r ge:t 
Dar zorjenfole 8 Kaufman 'unt dar lai9t 
Geshiirtste Piljer 9 — dar 'anda^tje M6n9, 
Dar dii:stre Eoiber 'unt dar haitre Shpi:lman, 
Dar Zoimer, mit dam shve:r bela:dnen Eos, 

Allowable forms (stage pronunciation): — x Ve:k. 2 Gele:genhait. 
3 farbirkt. 4 Ve:ges. 5 Farfolgern. 6 Fo:kt, 7 fra:get. 8 zorgenfole, 
9 Pilger, 



84 Appendices. 

De:r fame he:rkomt fon dar Manshen Landern — 
Dan je:de Shtra:se fiirrt 'ans Ant dar Valt — 
Zi: 'ale tsi:en 'i:res Ve:jes : fort, 
'An 'ihr Geshaft — 'unt maines 'ist dar Mort ! 

—Schiller, " Wilhelm Tell ". 

'As tso:#en 2 drai Burshe vo:l 'ii:ber den Eain, 
Bai 'ainer Frau Virtin da: ke:rten zi: 'ain : 

11 Frau Virtin ! hat zi: gu:t Bi:r 'unt Vain ? 
Vo: hat zi: 'i:r sho:nes Tocterlain ? " 

" Main Bi:r 'unt Vain 'ist frish 'unt kla:r. 
Main Tocterlain li:ct 3 'auf der To:tenba:r." 

'Unt 'als zi: tra:ten tsur Kamer hinain, 
Dah la:x 4 zi: 'in ainem shvartsen Shrain. 

Der 'e:rste, de:r shlu:x 5 den Shlaier tsu:ru'k, 
'Unt shaute zi: 'an mit traurijem 6 Blik : 

" 'Ax, le:ptest du: nox, du: sho:ne Mait ! 
'Ig viirde di9 li:ben fon di:zer Tsait." 

Der tsvaite dakte den Shlaier tsu:, 
'Unt ke:rte zic 'ap, 'unt vainte da:tsu: : 

"Ax, das du: li:cst 7 'auf der To:tenba:r ! 
'I9 ha:p di9 geli:bet zo: manges Ja:r." 

Der drite hu:p 'i:n vi:der zo:glaic, 
'Unt kiiste zi: 'an den Munt zo: blaic : 



" Die li:pt 'ig 'imer, dig li:b ig nox hoit, 
'Unt ve:rde dig li:ben 'in 'Ervigkait." 



Uhland. 



'As 'ist dox gevis, das 'in der Valt den Manshen nicts 
no:tvandic maxt 'als di: Li:be. 'Ic fii:ls 'an Loten, das zi: 
mig 'ungarn varlo':re, 'unt di: Kinder ha:ben kaine 'andre 

Allowable forms : — 1 Ve:ges. 2 tso:gen. 3 li:kt. 4 la:k. 

5 shlu:k, 6 traurigem. 7 li:kst, 



Appendices. 85 

'I:de:, 'als das 'ig 'imer morjen 1 virderkomen viirde. Hoit 
va:r ig hinausgegangen Lotens Klavi:r tsu: shtimen ; 'ig konte 
a:ber nigt da: tsu: kornen, dan di: Klainen farfolgten 2 mig 'urn 
'ain Ma:rgen, 'unt Lote zarxte 3 zalpst, 'ig zolte 'i:nen den 
Vilen tu:n. 'Ig shnit 'i:nen das 'A:bentbro:t, das zi: nu:n 
fast zo: game fon mi:r, als fon Loten 'anne:men, 'unt 
'artsa':lte 'i:nen das Hauptshtukgen fon dar Printsa'sin, di: 
fon Handen bedi:nt virt. 'Ig larne fi:l da:bai, das farzigr ig 
dig, 'unt ig bin 'arshtaunt, vas as 'auf zi: fii:r 'Aindriike 
maxt. Vail 'ig mangma:l 'ainen 'Intsi:da'ntspungkt 'arfmden 
mus, de:n 'ig bairn tsvaiten Ma:le farga'se, za:^en 4 zi: glaig, 
das fo:rije 5 Ma:l va:rs 'anders geve:st, zo: das 'ig mig jatst 
'u:be, zi: 'unfar'a'nderlig, 'in ainem zingenden Zilbenfal 'an 
'ainem Shnii:rgen vag 6 tsu: re:tsi:ti:ren. 'Ig ha:be darraus 
gelarnt, vi: 'ain 'Autor durg aine tsvaite far'a'nderte 'Aufla:^e 7 
zainer Geshigte, 'unt van zi: nox zo: po:e:tish baser gevorden 
va:re, no:tvandig zainem Bu:xe sharden mus. Der 'e:rste 
'Aindruk findet 'uns vilig, 'unt der Mansh 'ist zo: gemaxt, das 
man 'i:m das 'A:bentoierligste 'u:berre:den kan ; das haftet 
'a:ber 'aux glaig zo: fast, 'unt ve:e de:m, de:r as vi:der 
'auskratsen 'unt 'austiljen 8 vil ! 

— Gothe, "Die Leiden des jungen Werthers ". 

Allowable forms : — 1 Morgen. 2 farfolkten. 3 za:kte. 4 za:gen. 
5 fo:rige. 6 vak. 7 'Aufla:ge. 8 'austilgen. 



86 Appendices. 

III. 

SPECIMEN OF ENGLISH. 

Showing Variable Words in my own Pronunciation. 
Dhi Aisboeg. 

At twelv aklok wi went bilow an ad joest got thru dina, 
wen dha kuk put iz hed daun dha skcetl', an towld as ta kcem 
on dek an si dha fainist salt dhat wi ad eva sin. 

" Wher awey, kuk ? " ast dha foest maen hu went oep. 
" On dha labad bau." An dhea ley, flowting in dhi owshn', 
sevral mailz of, an imens iregyula maes, its top and points 
koevad widh snow, and its sentar av a dip indigo' kcela. Dhis 
waz an aisboeg, woen av dha lajist saiz, az woen av aua men 
sed hu ad bin in dha nodhan owshan. 

Az far az ai kud rich, dha si in evri direkshn' waz av a 
dip blu koela, dha weyvz roening hai an fresh, an spakling 
in dha lait ; and in dha midst ley dhis imens mauntin ailand, 
its ksevitiz an vseliz thrown inta dip sheyd, and its points an 
pinakl'z glitring in dhi ea. 

01 haendz wa sun on dek luking set it and admairing in 
veri'as weyz its byuti an graenja ; beet now diskripshn' kan 
giv eni aidi'a av dha streynjnis, splendar, and rial sablimiti av 
dha sait. 

Its greyt saiz, far it mcest av bin fram tu ta thri mailz 
in sakoemfarans an sevral hcendrad fit in hait ; its slow 
mowshn', aez its beys rowz an saengk in dha wotaz, and its 
hai points nodid agenst dha klaudz ; dha dasshing av dha weyvz 
apon it, wich, breyking hai widh fowm, koevad its beys widh a 
wait kreest ; dha thoendring saund av dha kraeking av dha maes, 
an dha breyking an tcembling daun av hyuj pisiz, tagedha 
widh its nianis and aprowch, wich aedid a slait elimant av fia — 
61 kambaind ta giv it dha kseriktar av tru sablimiti. 

Dha meyn bodi av dha maes woz, az ai av sed, av an indigo' 
koela, its beys waz kreestid widh frowzn' fowm, and aez it gru 



Appendices. 87 

THE SAME SPECIMEN OF ENGLISH. 

With a fixed spelling for Variable Words. 

Dhi Aisboeg. 

Mt twelv aklok wi went bilow, and haed joest got thru dinar, 
when dha kuk put hiz hed daun dha skcetl', and towld oes tu 
kcem on dek and si dha fainist sait dhat wi haed evar sin. 

" Whear awey, kuk?" ast dha foest maen hu went oep. 
" On dha labad bau." And dhear ley, flowting in dhi owshan, 
sevral mailz of, an imens iregyular m83S, its top and points 
koevad widh snow, and its sentar ov a dip indigo' kcelar. Dhis 
woz an aisboeg, ween ov dha lajist saiz, aez woen ov auar men 
sed hu haed bin in dha nodhan owshan. 

Mz far aez ai kud rich, dha si in evri direkshan woz ov a 
dip blu kcelar, dha weyvz rcening hai and fresh, and spak- 
ling in dha lait ; and in dha midst ley dhis im£ns mauntin 
ailand, its kaevitiz and vaeliz thrown intu dip sheyd, and its 
points and pinakl'z glitring in dhi ear. 

6l haendz woer sun on dek luking aet it and admairing in 
veri'as weyz its byuti and graenjar ; beet now diskripshan kaen 
giv eni aidi'a ov dha streynjnis, splendar, and rial sablimiti ov 
dha sait. 

Its greyt saiz, for it mcest haev bin from tu tu thri mailz 
in sakcemfarans and sevral hcendrad fit in hait ; its slow 
mowshan, aez its beys rowz and saengk in dha wotaz, and its 
hai points nodid agenst dha klaudz ; dha daeshing ov dha weyvz 
apon it, which, breyking hai widh fowm, kcevad its beys widh a 
whaitkreest ; dha thcendaring saund ov dha kraeking ov dha maea, 
and dha breyking and toembling daun ov hyuj pisiz, tagedhar 
widh its nianis and aprowch, which aedid a slait elimant ov 
fiar — 61 kambaind tu giv it dha kaeriktar ov tru sablimiti. 

Dha meyn bodi ov dha maes woz, aez ai haev sed, ov an indigo' 
kcelar, its beys woz kroestid widh frowzn' fowm, and aez it grti 



88 Appendices. 

thin an transpe'rant tawodz dhi ejiz an top, its koela sheydid 
of fram a dip blu ta dha waitnis av snow. It simd ta bi 
drifting slowli tawodz dha noth, sow dhat wi kept awey and 
avoidid it. 

It waz in sait 61 dhi aftanun, and aez wi got ta lyuwad 
av it, dha wind daid awey, sow dhat wi ley tu, kwait niar it, 
fa dha greyta pat av dha nait. GBnfo'chanitli dha waz now 
mun, bat it waz a klia nait, and wi kad pleynli mak dha long 
regyula hiving av dha styupendas maes aez its ejiz muvd slowli 
agenst dha staz. 

Sevral taimz in aua woch laud kraeks wa hoed, wich saundid 
az dhow dhey mast av roan thru dha howl length av dhi ais- 
boeg, an sevral pisiz fel daun widh a thcendaring kraesh, ploen- 
jing hevili inta dha si. Tuwo'dz moning a strong briz spraeng 
oep, sow wi fild awey, an left it astoen, an at deylait it waz aut 
av sait. 



Appendices. 89 

thin and transpe'rant tuwo'dz dhi ejiz and top, its koelar 
sheydid of from a dip blu. tu dha whaitnis ov snow. It 
simd tu bi drifting slowli tuwo'dz dha noth, so dhat wl kept 
awey and avoidid it. 

It woz in sait 61 dhi aftanu'n, and sez wi got to lyuwad 
ov it, dha wind daid awey, sow dhat wi ley tu, kwait nlar it, 
for dha greytar pat ov dha nait. (Enfo'chanitli dhear woz 
now mun, boat it woz a kliar nait, and wi kud pleynli mak 
dha long regyular hiving ov dha styupendas mses sez its ejiz 
muvd slowli agenst dha staz. 

Sevral taimz in auar woch laud kraeks woer hoed, which 
saundid aez dhow dhey nicest hsev rcen thru dha howl length ov 
dhi aisboeg, and sevral pisiz fel daun widh a thcendaring 
kraesh, ploenjing hevili intu dha si. Tuwo'dz moning a strong 
briz spraang cep, sow wi fild awey, and left it astoen,|and aet 
deylait it woz aut ov sait. 



ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

6* 



SOME OPINIONS ON THE FIEST 
EDITION. 

EXTRACTS FROM SOME SELECTED SCIENTIFIC OPINIONS. 

" You know how from my earliest writings I Jiave been an advocate of 
the study of Phonetics, and I was therefore much pleased to see your booh, 
ivhich gives a very fair and clear idea of the whole subject. It would be a 
great saving of time if Phonetics were taught in all schools ; the difficulty, 
Jiowever, is to find competent teachers. I hope your book may be lielpful in 
that direction." — Prof. F. Max Muller, Prof, of Comp. Philology at 
Oxford. 

" The book is admirable in every respect, and will be extremely useful to 
students." — The Rev. Prof. A. H. Sayce, Deputy-Prof, of Comp. Philo- 
logy at Oxford. 

"I have much pleasure in saying that I believe your Introduction to 
Phonetics to be a useful and even necessary book. I know of no better book 
for introducing the study to such as have not hitlierto given much attention 
to it, and I wish you all success." — The Rev. W. W. Skeat, Prof, of 
Anglo-Saxon at Cambridge. 

" I have read your Introduction to Phonetics with great pleasure, and 
have learnt a good deal from it." — Professor Otto Jespersen of Copen- 
hagen. 

" It really gives a much more intelligible Introduction to Phonetics than 
Dr. Sweet's book. I congratulate you heartily on your successful under- 
taking." — Professor Storm of Christiania. 

EXTRACTS FROM SOME PRESS OPINIONS. 

" The words, a step in the right direction, might serve to announce Miss 
Soames 1 excellent book, if we could be content with so very short a judgment. 
Fortunately we have space for more than that, so that we shall be able to 
add a few words in justification of our praise." — Phonetic Journal. 



EXTRACTS FROM SOME OPINIONS OF THE PRESS— (continued). 

" This clever work brings before the teacher in a new light the scientific 
methods on which the teaching alike of 'pronunciation and spelling should 
be based. We should certainly advise all teachers to study it who desire to 
obtain an intelligent insight into the study of Phonetics." — Child Life. 

" Miss Soames has earned a further claim to the gratitude of every 
right-minded and conscientious teacher, for whom the manual will prove 
in many an instance a welcome and useful guide''' — Education. 

" There is so much excellent work in it that we can highly commend it 
to all teachers and students who wish to study Phonetics in an attractive 
and popular form. To tlte French and German teacher in particular it 
will be found a most useful companion." — Journal of Education. 

"A valuable treatise on a subject in which simple text-books such as this 
are needed. We commend the book to the attention of all who wish to 
begin the study of sound-lore, and more especially to such as have tried 
Mr. Sweets writings and found them too tough." — University Corre- 
spondent. 

" Lucidly and attractively written. May be cordially recommended." — - 
Academy. 








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BOSTON COLLEGE LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY HEIGHTS 
CHESTNUT HILL, MASS. 



Books may be kept for two weeks and may be 
renewed for the same period, unless reserved. 

Two cents a day is charged for each book kept 
overtime. 

If you cannot find what you want, ask the 
Librarian who will be glad to help you. 

The borrower is responsible for books drawn 
on his card and for all fines accruing on the same.